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US History and Government - New York Regents June 2013 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Base your answer to question 1 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Which generalization is most clearly supported by the information provided by the map?
  (1) Most early European settlements were located west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  (2) Rivers and harbors played a major role in the location of early settlements.
  (3) Only Dutch colonists settled away from the Atlantic coast.
  (4) The Great Lakes were important shipping routes for the early settlers.
Answer: 2

2 The creation of the Virginia House of Burgesses
  and the signing of the Mayflower Compact
  showed that American colonists
  (1) supported the abolition of slavery
  (2) practiced elements of self-government
  (3) promoted public education
  (4) demanded immediate independence
Answer: 2

3 Which two key principles of government are
  included in the Declaration of Independence?
  (1) majority rule and minority rights
  (2) universal suffrage and judicial independence
  (3) direct democracy and equality for women
  (4) consent of the governed and natural rights
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 4 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … We the General Assembly of Virginia do enact,
   that no man shall be compelled to frequent or
   support any religious Worship place or Ministry
   whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained,
   molested, or burthened [burdened] in his body or
   goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his
   religious opinions or belief, but that all men shall
   be free to profess, and by argument to maintain
   their opinions in matters of religion, and that the
   same shall in no wise [way] diminish, enlarge, or
   affect their civil capacities.…
                       — Virginia General Assembly, 1779
 4 The principle expressed in this proposed law was
   also contained in the
   (1) Zenger case decision
   (2) Albany Plan of Union
   (3) First amendment
   (4) Alien and Sedition Acts
Answer: 3

5 Which major issue was debated at the
  Constitutional Convention in 1787 and contributed directly to the start of the Civil War?
  (1) regulation of interstate commerce
  (2) setting of qualifications for federal office
  (3) length of presidential term of office
  (4) balance of power between the states and the
      national government
Answer: 4

6 The United States and New York State
  constitutions establish republican forms of
  government because each provides for
  (1) a standing army
  (2) elected representatives
  (3) control over the money supply
  (4) a system of implied powers
Answer: 2

7 What was the primary objection of the
  Antifederalists to ratification of the Constitution?
  (1) They opposed a bicameral legislature.
  (2) They believed the rights of the people were
      not protected.
  (3) They feared a weak central government.
  (4) They wanted to give more power to the
      executive branch.
Answer: 2

   Base your answer to question 8 on the excerpts
from the United States Constitution below and on
your knowledge of social studies.
   The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall
   not be suspended, unless when in cases of
   rebellion or invasion the public safety may
   require it.
                                  — Article I, Section 9
   … and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable
   cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and
   particularly describing the place to be searched,
   and the persons or things to be seized.
                                     — Amendment IV
 8 Which basic constitutional concept is illustrated
   by each of these provisions?
   (1) balancing individual liberty and the need for
       order in society
   (2) dividing power between the Senate and the
       House of Representatives
   (3) guaranteeing equal treatment of minority
   (4) providing flexibility to meet changing needs
       through the elastic clause
Answer: 1

9 According to the Constitution, the president is
  required to
  (1) sign or veto bills passed by Congress
  (2) establish income tax rates
  (3) review Supreme Court decisions
  (4) raise money for political parties
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 10 on the excerpt
from an address to the Cherokee Nation below and
on your knowledge of social studies.
       Cherokees! The president of the United States
   has sent me, with a powerful army, to cause you,
   in obedience to the treaty of 1835, to join that
   part of your people who are already established in
   prosperity on the other side of the Mississippi.—
   Unhappily, the two years which were allowed for
   the purpose, you have suffered to pass away
   without following, and without making any
   preparations to follow; and now, or by the time
   that this solemn address shall reach your distant
   settlements, the emigration must be commenced
   in haste, but, I hope, without disorder. I have no
   power, by granting a further delay, to correct the
   error that you have committed. The full moon of
   May is already on the wane [decline]; and before
   another shall have passed away, every Cherokee
   man, woman, and child, in those states, must be
   in motion to join their brethren in the far west.…
                         — General Winfield Scott, 1838
10 The immediate result of the action demanded in
   this passage was the
   (1) creation of the Underground Railroad
   (2) expansion of the rights of Native American
   (3) start of the Trail of Tears march to the
       Oklahoma Territory
   (4) assimilation of Native American Indians into
       mainstream American culture
Answer: 3

11 In Marbury v. Madison (1803), the Supreme
   Court established a precedent for
   (1) judicial review
   (2) the impeachment process for civil officers
   (3) lifetime offices for justices
   (4) treaty ratification procedures
Answer: 1

12 The Lewis and Clark expedition (1803–1806) was
   important because it
   (1) determined the route of the first transcontinental railroad
   (2) opened an all-water route to the Gulf of Mexico
   (3) removed the British threat from the
       Northwest Territory
   (4) increased understanding of the area included
       in the Louisiana Purchase
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 13 on the statement
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … The whole military force of the State is at the
   service of a Mr. Suttle, a slaveholder from Virginia,
   to enable him to catch a man whom he calls his
   property; but not a soldier is offered to save a
   citizen of Massachusetts from being kidnapped! Is
   this what all these soldiers, all this training, have
   been for these seventy-nine years past [since the
   beginning of the American Revolution]? Have
   they been trained merely to rob Mexico and carry
   back fugitive slaves to their masters?…
      — Henry David Thoreau, Independence Day speech at
                              Framingham, Massachusetts
13 The author of this statement is expressing
   dissatisfaction with a provision included in the
   (1) Treaty of Ghent (1815)
   (2) Oregon Treaty of 1846
   (3) Compromise of 1850
   (4) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Answer: 3

Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
14 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information in the map?
   (1) The belief in laissez-faire prevented the federal government from helping railroads.
   (2) The federal government promoted transcontinental railroad construction.
   (3) Western railroads generated little profit for their owners.
   (4) Railroad companies had to buy the land they needed for construction.
Answer: 2

15 What was a result of the railroad construction shown on the map?
   (1) A national market developed in the United States.
   (2) Silver and gold mining opportunities decreased.
   (3) Railroad companies gave free land to settlers.
   (4) Steel factories relocated from the Great Lakes region to the Rocky Mountain states.
Answer: 1

16 President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for
   Reconstruction after the Civil War included
   (1) restoring the social conditions that existed
       before the war began
   (2) conducting trials for former Confederate
   (3) destroying the economic and social power of
       the Southern planters
   (4) reuniting the nation as quickly as possible
Answer: 4

17 After the Civil War, freedmen in the South had
   difficulty improving their economic condition
   (1) literacy for formerly enslaved persons was
   (2) migration of factory workers from Northern
        cities had created competition for jobs
   (3) the federal government confiscated their 40acre grants
   (4) the system of sharecropping kept them in a
        cycle of poverty
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 18 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
18 This cartoon is expressing support for
   (1) the Populist crusade (3) national Prohibition
   (2) woman’s suffrage      (4) protective tariffs
Answer: 3

19 In the second half of the 180os, which
   development led to the other three?
   (1) expansion of political machines
   (2) growth of American cities
   (3) development of tenement housing
   (4) increase in crime
Answer: 2

20 The Roosevelt Corollary (1904) to the Monroe
   Doctrine proclaimed the right of the United States to
   (1) intervene in the internal affairs of Latin
       American nations
   (2) impose trade restrictions on European imports
   (3) promote democracy in Africa
   (4) determine the border between Alaska and
Answer: 1

21 In the early 2oth century, muckrakers were able
   to influence American society mainly by
   (1) organizing demonstrations in large cities
   (2) contributing to presidential election campaigns
   (3) lobbying members of Congress
   (4) exposing corruption in business and
Answer: 4

22 Which statement about President Theodore
   Roosevelt’s Square Deal is an opinion rather than
   a fact?
   (1) The Square Deal included policies to
       increase railroad regulation.
   (2) Consumer protection was an element of the
       Square Deal.
   (3) Square Deal policy made distinctions between good and bad trusts.
   (4) The Square Deal was superior to any other
       president’s program.
Answer: 4

23 “Governor Defeated in Recall Election”
   “Referendum Held on Term Limits”
   “Conservationists Propose Initiative on National
   These headlines are all examples of Progressive
   Era reforms designed to
   (1) place more power in the hands of the voters
   (2) strengthen the power of state legislatures
   (3) decrease States rights and increase federal
   (4) exclude specific ethnic groups from the
       political process
Answer: 1

24 During World War I, what was President
   Woodrow Wilson’s purpose in outlining the
   Fourteen Points?
   (1) asking Congress for additional funding for the
       war effort
   (2) suggesting a peace plan to prevent future wars
   (3) proposing war crimes trials for leaders of
       enemy nations
   (4) calling for military alliances against aggressor
Answer: 2

25 The Scopes trial and the Sacco and Vanzetti case
   both involved
   (1) disputes over the death penalty
   (2) clashes over cultural values
   (3) protests by temperance leaders
   (4) challenges to search and seizure protections
Answer: 2

26 The prosperity of the United States in the mid192os resulted in part from
   (1) increased demand for new consumer goods
   (2) high-wage contracts negotiated by labor unions
   (3) record-high farm prices
   (4) increased government regulation of the
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 27 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
27 Many Americans responded to photographs such
   as this by
   (1) opposing government subsidies for low-income
   (2) petitioning Congress to decrease funding for
       the Veterans Administration
   (3) demanding legislation to increase the power of
       the military
   (4) criticizing the government for its treatment of
       World War I veterans
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 28 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   viewpoint of the cartoonist?
   (1) New Deal programs are endangering the
   (2) Most Americans support New Deal
   (3) Supreme Court decisions are overturning
       New Deal programs.
   (4) New Deal programs emphasize health care
Answer: 1

Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                Dust Storm Disaster
                On the 14th day of April of 1935,
                There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky.
                You could see that dust storm comin’, the cloud looked deathlike black,
                And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track.…
                The storm took place at sundown, it lasted through the night,
                When we looked out next morning, we saw a terrible sight.
                We saw outside our window where wheat fields they had grown
                Was now a rippling ocean of dust the wind had blown.
                It covered up our fences, it covered up our barns,
                It covered up our tractors in the wild and dusty storm.
                We loaded our jalopies and piled our families in,
                We rattled down that highway to never come back again.
                                                                       — Woody Guthrie
      29 Which region of the United States was most directly affected by the situation described
         in this song?
         (1) Southeast                           (3) Great Plains
         (2) Great Lakes                         (4) Pacific Northwest
Answer: 3

30 These song lyrics were written about people who became
   (1) sharecroppers in the South
   (2) migrant farm workers on the West Coast
   (3) fishermen in New England
   (4) coal miners in the Ohio River valley
Answer: 2

31 The entrance of the United States into World
   War II was preceded by
   (1) President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s successful
       effort to end the Holocaust in Europe
   (2) unauthorized presidential use of United
       States troops in Japan
   (3) American aid to help Great Britain defend
       itself against German aggression
   (4) legislation encouraging the immigration of
       war refugees
Answer: 3

32 As a result of the presidency of Franklin D.
   Roosevelt, the Constitution was amended to
   (1) correct problems with the electoral college
   (2) lower the voting age to eighteen years
   (3) limit the number of terms a person can serve
       as president
   (4) end the use of poll taxes in presidential
Answer: 3

33 The internment of Japanese Americans during
   World War II illustrates that
   (1) the Supreme Court can be relied on to
       defend civil rights
   (2) threats to national security are often ignored
       by the government
   (3) minorities are not allowed to enlist in the
       United States military
   (4) civil liberties are sometimes limited during
       times of national crisis
Answer: 4

34 After World War II, what was one important
   result of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
   (GI Bill)?
   (1) Many veterans attended college.
   (2) The demand for housing decreased.
   (3) Defense industries recruited more women.
   (4) Women became eligible for the draft.
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 35 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 Which conclusion is supported by the information provided on this map?
   (1) The United Nations could have won the war by sending its troops across the Yalu River.
   (2) South Korea was never in danger of being defeated by North Korea.
   (3) The war did little to alter the territorial division of Korea.
   (4) China refused to aid North Korea.
Answer: 3

36 The perceived threat of communist influence in
   the United States during the 195os prompted
   Congress to
   (1) ban foreign students
   (2) repeal loyalty oaths
   (3) deport citizens who were communists
   (4) investigate suspected communist sympathizers
Answer: 4

37 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) provided
   congressional support for
   (1) withdrawing from the United Nations
   (2) expanding the Alliance for Progress
   (3) escalating military action in Vietnam
   (4) reestablishing trade with Cuba
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 38 on the
newspaper article below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
38 President Kennedy responded to warnings like
   this by
   (1) promising to explore Mars and other nearby
   (2) asking Congress to fund the Hubble telescope
   (3) pledging to put a man on the Moon within a
   (4) joining the Soviet Union in building a space
Answer: 3

39 A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s
   Great Society program was to
   (1) increase farm production
   (2) provide aid to developing nations in Africa
   (3) enact social welfare programs to end poverty
   (4) expand the size of the military
Answer: 3

   Base your answer to question 40 on the magazine
covers below and on your knowledge of social studies.
40 What was a result of the events reflected in these
   magazine covers?
   (1) Many Americans lost trust in their government.
   (2) The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the
       president’s actions.
   (3) Freedom of the press was limited.
   (4) President Richard Nixon was defeated in his
       bid for reelection.
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 41 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Historians looking back at our time will note
   the consistent restraint and peaceful intentions of
   the West. They will note that it was the
   democracies who refused to use the threat of their
   nuclear monopoly in the forties and early fifties
   for territorial or imperial gain. Had that nuclear
   monopoly been in the hands of the Communist
   world, the map of Europe—indeed, the world—
   would look very different today. And certainly
   they will note it was not the democracies that
   invaded Afghanistan [in 1979] or suppressed
   Polish Solidarity or used chemical and toxin
   warfare in Afghanistan and Southeast Asia.…
                — President Ronald Reagan, speech to the
                 British House of Commons, June 8, 1982
41 Which attitude about Cold War rivalries is expressed by President Ronald Reagan in this speech?
   (1) Actions taken by communist nations to secure
       their borders have brought stability to Europe.
   (2) The United States has made no attempt to
       pursue peaceful coexistence with communist
   (3) Efforts to reduce the nuclear arms race have
       resulted in lower defense spending.
   (4) Communist nations, not western democracies, have threatened world peace.
Answer: 4

42 President Ronald Reagan and President George
   W. Bush shared the belief that tax cuts would
   result in
   (1) a reduction in exports
   (2) the growth of the economy
   (3) an increase in the federal bureaucracy
   (4) a rise in unemployment
Answer: 2

43 In New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) and Vernonia
   School District v. Acton (1995), the United States
   Supreme Court ruled that
   (1) student rights may be limited in school
   (2) school locker searches are unconstitutional
   (3) public schools have the right to promote
       school prayer
   (4) schools must obtain a court order to
       implement drug testing
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 44 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
44 Which development is the topic of this cartoon?
   (1) increase in trade between the United States
       and Southeast Asia
   (2) outsourcing of American jobs to foreign
   (3) abandonment of free trade agreements with
       other countries
   (4) payment of higher wages to overseas workers
Answer: 2

45 What was the major purpose of the Sherman
   Antitrust Act (1890) and the Clayton Antitrust
   Act (1914)?
   (1) reducing government involvement in the
   (2) promoting fair competition between
   (3) guaranteeing collective bargaining rights
   (4) increasing foreign imports
Answer: 2

46 Which action would be considered an example of
   the use of the unwritten constitution?
   (1) ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920
   (2) declaration of war against Japan in 1941
   (3) passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
   (4) cabinet meeting called by President Bill
       Clinton in 1993
Answer: 4

47 The growing use of the automobile in the 192os
   and the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 both
   contributed to
   (1) the expansion of inner cities
   (2) an increase in immigration
   (3) the growth of suburbs
   (4) a resurgence in rail travel
Answer: 3

48 Which statement is a valid generalization about
   immigration to the United States?
   (1) Asian immigration was encouraged throughout the 2oth century.
   (2) Few restrictions on European immigration
       existed before the 192os.
   (3) The original Constitution strictly limited
   (4) Federal immigration policies have not
       changed since 1900.
Answer: 2

49 Which statement best describes a concern shared
   by John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, and Rachel
   (1) The rights of the disabled are not respected.
   (2) Campaign finance reform is needed to
       improve government.
   (3) The natural environment must be protected.
   (4) The growth of the federal budget deficit is a
       threat to the nation.
Answer: 3

50 The League of Nations and the United Nations
   were both formed with the goal of
   (1) preventing wars through peaceful negotiations
   (2) prohibiting the development of nuclear weapons
   (3) monitoring the world’s monetary systems
   (4) supporting the spread of democracy
Answer: 1

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Foreign Policy — National Interests
                 Throughout the history of the United States, the primary goal of its foreign policy
                 has been to protect the nation’s interests. The United States has taken military and
                 economic foreign policy actions to achieve that goal. These actions have resulted
                 in varying degrees of success.
                 Select two military and/or economic foreign policy actions taken by the United
                 States to protect its national interests and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the action
                 • Discuss the extent to which this action was successful in protecting the national
            You may use any military and/or economic foreign policy action taken by the United States
        to protect its national interests. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include fighting
        the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), declaring war on Spain (1898), implementing the
        Open Door Policy (1899), building the Panama Canal (1904–1914), carrying out the Marshall
        Plan (1947–1952), confronting the Soviets during the Cuban missile crisis (1962), fighting the
        Vietnam War (1964–1973), and fighting the Persian Gulf War (1990–1991).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
         Do not write about the Confederacy during the Civil War as one of your examples.
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                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout United States history, the United States Supreme Court has decided
              major cases related to the civil liberties of African Americans. These decisions have
              had a significant impact on the nation. These cases include Dred Scott v. Sanford
              (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two Supreme Court cases mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances leading to the case
                • Discuss the impact of the Supreme Court’s ruling on the United States and/or
                  on American society
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Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a
Document 1b
      … After the Missouri crisis it was no longer possible to pretend that the United States was a
      single nation with a single set of national interests. Although politicians in both North and South
      worked hard over the next two decades to suppress the issue of slavery in the national debate
      lest it drive a deeper wedge between the northern and southern wings of both national parties,
      the society of slaveholders would henceforth be in conflict with the society of free labor.…
                                                  Source: Robert Kagan, Dangerous Nation: America’s Foreign Policy
                                  from Its Earliest Days to the Dawn of the Twentieth Century, Alfred A. Knopf, 2006
1 Based on these documents, what were two effects the Missouri Compromise had on the nation? [2]
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Document 2
  Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote the majority opinion in the Dred Scott case.
      … Taney’s decision, which represented the entire Court, not only affirmed the repeal of the
      Missouri Compromise that had been achieved by the Kansas-Nebraska Act but also challenged the
      concept of popular sovereignty in any Western territory. As Southern Senator John C. Calhoun had
      argued, Taney stated that any move to block the rights of slaveholders to own slaves in a territory
      violated the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment. Supporters of slavery rejoiced at the
      decision, while those opposed to the expansion of slavery saw Taney’s work as further evidence
      that national politics was firmly under the control of Southern apologists [defenders of slavery].
      In the end, the Dred Scott case only fueled the already growing flames of sectional mistrust.…
                                       Source: Jeffrey W. Coker, Presidents from Taylor Through Grant, 1849–1877:
                                   Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents, Greenwood Press, 2002
2 According to Jeffrey W. Coker, what was one impact of the Dred Scott decision? [1]
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Document 3a
   This is an excerpt from a speech by Frederick Douglass in which he analyzed and criticized the Supreme
Court’s Dred Scott decision.
       … This infamous [Dred Scott] decision of the Slaveholding wing of the Supreme Court
       maintains that slaves are within the contemplation [meaning] of the Constitution of the United
       States, property; that slaves are property in the same sense that horses, sheep, and swine are
       property; that the old doctrine that slavery is a creature of local law is false; that the right of the
       slaveholder to his slave does not depend upon the local law, but is secured wherever the
       Constitution of the United States extends; that Congress has no right to prohibit slavery
       anywhere; that slavery may go in safety anywhere under the star-spangled banner; that colored
       persons of African descent have no rights that white men are bound to respect; that colored men
       of African descent are not and cannot be citizens of the United States.…
                                          Source: Frederick Douglass, Speech on the Dred Scott Decision, May 1857
3a According to Frederick Douglass, what would be one impact of the Dred Scott decision? [1]
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Document 3b
      … The third story [of Dred Scott] is about the politics of slavery and the coming of the Civil War.
      The Supreme Court decision sparked enormous political reaction, particularly in the North. It
      destroyed any chance of agreement between the North and the South over slavery in the
      territories. It would be an exaggeration to say that the Dred Scott decision caused the Civil War.
      But it certainly pushed the nation far closer to that war. The decision played a decisive role in
      the emergence of Abraham Lincoln as the Republican Party’s presidential candidate in 1860 and
      his election later that year. That in turn set the stage for secession and civil war.…
        Source: Paul Finkelman, Dred Scott v. Sandford [Sanford]: A Brief History with Documents, Bedford Books, 1997
3b According to Paul Finkelman, what was one effect of the Dred Scott decision on the nation? [1]
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Document 4
                               TRANSPORTATION OF PASSENGERS.
                                           Act III, 1890, p. 152
      … SECTION 1. Separate Accommodations, etc.—That all railway companies carrying
      passengers in their coaches in this State, shall provide equal but separate accommodations for
      the white, and colored [African American] races, by providing two or more passenger coaches
      for each passenger train, or by dividing the passenger coaches by a partition so as to secure
      separate accommodations; provided that this section shall not be construed to apply to street
      railroads. No person or persons, shall be permitted to occupy seats in coaches, other than the
      ones assigned to them on account of the race they belong to.…
                                                        Source: Revised Laws of Louisiana, F. F. Hansell & Bro.
4 Based on this document, what was one effect of this Louisiana law on African Americans? [1]
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Document 5
    This is an excerpt from an article written by Booker T. Washington in response to the decision in
Plessy v. Ferguson.
       … Now the point of all this article is not to make a complaint against the white man or the “Jim
       Crow Car” law, but it is simply to say that such an unjust law injures the white man, and
       inconveniences the negro [African American]. No race can wrong another race simply because
       it has the power to do so, without being permanently injured in morals, and its ideas of justice.
       The negro can endure the temporary inconvenience, but the injury to the white man is
       permanent. It is the one who inflicts the wrong that is hurt, rather than the one on whom the
       wrong is inflicted. It is for the white man to save himself from this degradation that I plead.
           If a white man steals a negro’s ballot, it is the white man who is permanently injured.
       Physical death comes to the negro lynched—death of the morals—death of the soul—comes to
       the white man who perpetrates the lynching.…
     Source: Louis R. Harlan, ed., The Booker T. Washington Papers, Volume 4: 1895–98, University of Illinois Press, 1975
 5 According to Booker T. Washington, what would be one impact of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision on white
   society? [1]
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Document 6
                                                                  Source: Dorothea Lange, photographer,
                                                                          June 1937, Library of Congress
       Source: Marion Post Walcott, photographer,
               October 1939, Library of Congress
6 Based on these photographs, what was one impact of the Plessy decision on American society? [1]
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Document 7a
7a Based on this chart, what was one disadvantage faced by African American students in these southern states
   in the early 194os? [1]
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Document 7b
   This letter was sent by the Topeka, Kansas, chapter of the NAACP to the national organization.
                                                        September 5, 1950
           The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
           Legal Department
           20 West 4oth
           New York City 18, New York
               I represent the legal branch of N.A.A.C.P., of Topeka, Kansas, and I wish to
           inform your office of the pending controversy existing in the city of Topeka, and
           elsewhere in the state of Kansas.
               The facts are briefly these: The Board of Education of the aforesaid city is
           maintaining and has maintained a dual system of education for colored and white
           grade school children. In doing so, the Board is acting under a permissive statute of
           the state of Kansas.
               The white children have several districts; in these districts, some colored children
           live, and their parents own property in these so-called districts. However, said colored
           children are prohibited from attending the schools in these districts, and are
           compelled to leave their home and meet a bus (said bus is provided by the Board of
           Education) that carries them, often for long distances, to the various Negro schools.
              The parents of the said Negro children are taxed for all of the schools, and the
           whole thing results in a jim-crow system.…
                                                        Very truly yours
                                                        Chas. E. Bledsoe
                                                                        Source: Kansas Historical Society
7b According to Chas. E. Bledsoe, what was one problem that existed within the Topeka, Kansas, school system
   in 1950? [1]
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Document 8a
   Lieutenant Colonel Marion Johnson, commander of Arkansas National Guard troops, is pictured turning
back a group of African American students seeking to enter Central High School in Little Rock on
September 4, 1957. He said he was acting on orders of Governor Orval Faubus not to admit them.
Document 8b
                                          Executive Order 10730
       SECTION 2. The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to take all appropriate
       steps to enforce any orders of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of
       Arkansas for the removal of obstruction of justice in the State of Arkansas with respect to
       matters relating to enrollment and attendance at public schools in the Little Rock School
       District, Little Rock, Arkansas. In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Secretary of
       Defense is authorized to use the units, and members thereof, ordered into the active military
       service of the United States pursuant to Section 1 of this Order.
                                                             DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER
       September 24, 1957
                                                            Source: Eisenhower Presidential Library & Museum
8 Based on these documents, why did President Dwight D. Eisenhower issue Executive Order 10730? [1]
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Document 9
      What other movements, campaigns or causes did Brown v. Board aid or inspire?
      Mike Wenger: The Brown decision, in my opinion, launched the struggle of African Americans
      over the next decade and one-half for their constitutional rights.
      That struggle inspired a number of other movements, including the movement for Mexican farm
      workers rights led by Cesar Chavez, who formed the United Farm Workers in 1962.
      The movements for equal rights for women and for the rights of disabled citizens also can be
      traced to the civil rights struggles of African Americans, and therefore, to the Brown decision.
                                                                    Source: Excerpt of interview with Mike Wenger,
                                         special consultant to the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies,
                                                 “Brown v. Board Is...,” Teaching Tolerance, Spring 2004 (adapted)
9 According to Mike Wenger, what was one way the ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka affected
  American society? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout United States history, the United States Supreme Court has decided
                major cases related to the civil liberties of African Americans. These decisions have
                had a significant impact on the nation. These cases include Dred Scott v. Sanford
                (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Select two Supreme Court cases mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances leading to the case
                  • Discuss the impact of the Supreme Court’s ruling on the United States and/or
                    on American society
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents June 2013 Exam

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