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US History and Government - New York Regents June 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which geographic features had the most
  significant positive influence on settlement
  patterns and economic development in the
  British North American colonies?
  (1) rivers and harbors
  (2) mountains and plateaus
  (3) forests and deserts
  (4) prairies and lakes
Answer: 1

2.
2 The Erie Canal played a large role in the
  settlement of the Midwest because it provided a
  link between the Atlantic Ocean and the
  (1) Gulf of Mexico        (3) Missouri River
  (2) Great Lakes           (4) Pacific Ocean
Answer: 2

3.
3 During the 1600s and 1700s, the fundamental
  goal of British mercantilism was to
  (1) prohibit all exports of raw materials from the
      colonies
  (2) encourage economic competition with the
      American colonies
  (3) develop manufacturing within the colonies
  (4) maintain a favorable balance of trade for
      Great Britain with its colonies
Answer: 4


4.
4 The Proclamation of 1763 was issued by Great
  Britain after the French and Indian War
  primarily to
  (1) promote colonial settlement beyond the
      Appalachian Mountains
  (2) limit conflict between Native American
      Indians and colonial settlers
  (3) encourage colonial economic ties with France
  (4) force French settlers to leave British territory
Answer: 2

5.
    Base your answer to question 5 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …Small islands not capable of protecting
   themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms
   to take under their care; but there is something
   very absurd, in supposing a continent to be
   perpetually governed by an island. In no instance
   hath nature made the satellite larger than its
   primary planet, and as England and America,
   with respect to each other, reverses the common
   order of nature, it is evident that they belong to
   different systems: England to Europe, America
   to itself.…
                       — Thomas Paine, Common Sense
 5 The argument presented in this passage was
   intended to
   (1) urge colonists to accept the Albany Plan of
       Union
   (2) provide a reason for ratification of the
       Constitution of the United States
   (3) convince American colonists to declare their
       independence
   (4) persuade France to aid the United States in
       the Revolutionary War
Answer: 3

6.
6 What was one effect of the Three-fifths
  Compromise?
  (1) Slave states gained additional congressional
      representation.
  (2) The number of justices on the Supreme
      Court was established.
  (3) Presidential appointments were assured easy
      confirmation.
  (4) A two-house legislature was created.
Answer: 1

7.
    Base your answer to question 7 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …No political truth is certainly of greater
   intrinsic [essential] value, or is stamped with the
   authority of more enlightened patrons of liberty,
   than that on which the objection is founded. The
   accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive,
   and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one,
   a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-
   appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced
   the very definition of tyranny.…
            — James Madison, The Federalist, Number 47
 7 Which constitutional principle was established to
   protect American citizens from the tyranny
   suggested in this quotation?
   (1) due process of law
   (2) States rights
   (3) popular sovereignty
   (4) separation of powers
Answer: 4

8.
    Base your answer to question 8 on the passages
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and
   independence, and every power, jurisdiction and
   right, which is not by this confederation expressly
   delegated to the United States, in Congress
   assembled.
                      — Article II, Articles of Confederation
   The powers not delegated to the United States by
   the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the
   states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to
   the people.
            — 10th amendment, United States Constitution
 8 The purpose of each of these provisions is to
   (1) determine the division of power between state
       and central governments
   (2) create a process for allowing amendments
   (3) grant the central government power to
       control the states
   (4) limit the power of the executive branch
Answer: 1

9.
9 “President Jackson Vetoes Bill Rechartering Bank
   of United States”
  “Taney Court Overturns Missouri Compromise”
  “Senate Approves NATO Treaty”
  Which concept is best illustrated by these
  headlines?
  (1) federalism
  (2) direct democracy
  (3) checks and balances
  (4) westward expansion
Answer: 3

10.
10 What was a major demand of the Antifederalists
   during the debate over ratification of the United
   States Constitution?
   (1) continuation of slavery
   (2) right to habeas corpus
   (3) inclusion of a bill of rights
   (4) reduction in the number of representatives in
       Congress
Answer: 3

11.
11 Which headline would be considered an example
   of the unwritten constitution?
   (1) “President Nixon Vetoes War Powers Act”
   (2) “Congress Approves President Reagan’s Tax
        Cuts”
   (3) “Congress Votes to Impeach President Bill
        Clinton”
   (4) “President Obama Names Hillary Clinton to
        Cabinet”
Answer: 4

12.
12 What was a common goal of the Proclamation of
   Neutrality (1793), the Embargo Act (1807), and
   the Monroe Doctrine (1823)?
   (1) forcing Great Britain to grant independence
       to Canada
   (2) avoiding conflicts with European nations
   (3) providing wartime aid to European nations
   (4) encouraging independence movements in
       Latin America
Answer: 2

13.
Base your answer to question 13 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
13 The information provided by the map best supports the conclusion that
   (1) the South’s transportation system was more efficient
   (2) most railroads were owned and operated by the United States government
   (3) the transcontinental railroad linked the West and the South
   (4) the North had transportation advantages by the start of the Civil War
Answer: 4

14.
14 The Supreme Court decisions in Marbury v.
   Madison (1803), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819),
   and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) are similar in that
   each resulted in the
   (1) development of new political parties
   (2) admission of new slave states
   (3) strengthening of the power of the federal
       government
   (4) expansion of the rights of corporations
Answer: 3

15.
15 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the
   Compromise of 1850 were attempts by the
   federal government to
   (1) limit immigration from Europe
   (2) reduce the conflict over slavery
   (3) settle border disputes with Mexico
   (4) control the migration of settlers to new
       western territories
Answer: 2

16.
16 The Homestead Act of 1862 was important to the
   expansion of the United States because it provided
   (1) land for agricultural colleges
   (2) assistance to sharecroppers in the South
   (3) free land to settlers in the West
   (4) land grants for construction of transconti-
       nental railroads
Answer: 3

17.
17 After the Civil War, a significant cause of the
   conflict between President Andrew Johnson and
   the Radical Republicans in Congress was
   disagreement over
   (1) the plans for restoring Southern states to the
       Union
   (2) a proposal to repeal the Emancipation
       Proclamation
   (3) reduction of the army and the navy to prewar
       levels
   (4) congressional efforts to pay the Confederate
       war debt
Answer: 1

18.
18 In the late 1800s, which idea was used most often
   to justify the elimination of business
   competition?
   (1) conservation           (3) Social Darwinism
   (2) Manifest Destiny       (4) populism
Answer: 3

19.
19 Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
   were used in the South after 1890 to
   (1) support the goals of the Freedmen’s Bureau
   (2) deny suffrage rights to African Americans
   (3) undermine the “separate but equal” ruling of
       the Supreme Court
   (4) enforce the amendments enacted during the
       Civil War and Reconstruction
Answer: 2

20.
20 The importance of Northern Securities Co. v.
   United States (1904) is that the Supreme Court
   (1) used the Sherman Antitrust Act to break up a
       monopoly
   (2) ruled child labor laws unconstitutional
   (3) upheld the right of women to vote
   (4) established regulations for the New York
       Stock Exchange
Answer: 1


21.
    Base your answer to question 21 on the statement
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
    …the policy of the government of the United
    States is to seek a solution which may bring about
    permanent safety and peace to China, preserve
    Chinese territorial and administrative entity,
    protect all rights guaranteed to friendly powers
    by treaty and international law, and safeguard for
    the world the principle of equal and impartial
    trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire.…
  — Secretary of State John Hay, Circular Letter, July 3, 1900
21 This excerpt from John Hay’s Circular Letter
   became part of the
   (1) Open Door policy
   (2) Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
   (3) policy of Dollar Diplomacy
   (4) Kellogg-Briand Pact
Answer: 1

22.
22 In the early 1900s, Progressives succeeded in
   strengthening federal control over the money
   supply by
   (1) passing the Clayton Antitrust Act
   (2) creating the Federal Reserve System
   (3) enacting the Underwood Tariff bill
   (4) establishing the gold standard
Answer: 2

23.
23 What was the purpose of states adopting
   initiative, referendum, and recall during the
   Progressive Era?
   (1) supporting new political parties
   (2) increasing the power of voters over the
        political process
   (3) reestablishing property qualifications for
        voting
   (4) extending voting rights to immigrants
Answer: 2

24.
Base your answer to question 24 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
24 Which statement most accurately describes the main argument made in this
   1919 cartoon?
   (1) Labor and management have the same economic goals.
   (2) The federal government should take ownership of major industries.
   (3) Organized workers are more productive than nonunion workers.
   (4) Disputes between labor and the leaders of business are hurting
       the economy.
Answer: 4

25.
25 Which action by Germany prompted the United
   States to enter World War I?
   (1) attacking British shipping
   (2) forming an alliance with Austria-Hungary
   (3) resuming unrestricted submarine warfare
   (4) invading France
Answer: 3

26.
26 The United States Supreme Court in Schenck v.
   United States (1919) ruled that freedom of
   speech may be limited during national
   emergencies when the speech
   (1) threatens the principle of States rights
   (2) conflicts with national economic policies
   (3) interferes with a presidential campaign
   (4) presents a clear and present danger to the
       nation
Answer: 4

27.
Base your answer to question 27 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
27 The situation shown in this photograph occurred in which region?
   (1) Ohio River valley                (3) Rocky Mountains
   (2) Great Plains                     (4) Northeast
Answer: 2

28.
    Base your answer to question 28 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 Which conclusion is best supported by the
   information on the chart?
   (1) Business advertising had succeeded in selling
       more products.
   (2) Violence by labor had increased throughout
       the country.
   (3) Economic conditions had become worse.
   (4) The stock market had recovered in 1933.
Answer: 3

29.
    Base your answer to question 29 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …Of all the Nations of the world today we are in
   many ways most singularly blessed. Our closest
   neighbors are good neighbors. If there are
   remoter [distant] Nations that wish us not good
   but ill, they know that we are strong; they know
   that we can and will defend ourselves and defend
   our neighborhood.
   We seek to dominate no other Nation. We ask
   no territorial expansion. We oppose imperialism.
   We desire reduction in world armaments.…
                       — President Franklin D. Roosevelt,
             Address at Chautauqua, NY, August 14, 1936
29 Which policy is President Franklin D. Roosevelt
   supporting in this speech?
   (1) neutrality in foreign relations
   (2) a growth in military spending
   (3) an increase in foreign aid
   (4) formation of military alliances
Answer: 1

30.
Base your answers to questions 30 through 32 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
30 This 1937 cartoon is criticizing President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s plan to
   (1) reduce the number of federal courts
   (2) impeach current Supreme Court justices
   (3) give states the power to appoint Supreme Court justices
   (4) increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court
Answer: 4

31.
31 One reason President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed the plan shown in the
   cartoon was that the Supreme Court had
   (1) challenged his right to run for a third term
   (2) rejected several important Cabinet appointments
   (3) ruled against laws to protect the rights of minorities
   (4) declared parts of key New Deal programs unconstitutional
Answer: 4

32.
32 Many members of Congress opposed the plan shown in the cartoon because
   it would
   (1) reduce the power of the president
   (2) upset the system of checks and balances
   (3) destroy the system of federalism
   (4) cost too much to implement
Answer: 2

33.
Base your answer to question 33 on the photograph and poster below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 Photographs and posters showing scenes similar to these were used by the
   federal government to
   (1) support the goal of equal pay for equal work
   (2) discourage women from taking jobs from men with families
   (3) recruit women to fill wartime manufacturing jobs
   (4) encourage women to accept combat roles
Answer: 3

34.
34 The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill)
   was responsible for
   (1) building United States military bases in allied
       countries throughout the world
   (2) providing education and home loan benefits
       for soldiers returning from World War II
   (3) maintaining the size of the active duty
       military at its pre–World War II level
   (4) sending the United States economy into a
       post–World War II recession
Answer: 2

35.
35 President Harry Truman’s decision to drop
   atomic bombs on Japan was based on the belief
   that the action would
   (1) save American lives by avoiding an invasion of
       Japan
   (2) force Germany and Italy to lay down their
       arms
   (3) help create a military alliance with China
   (4) persuade the Soviet Union to surrender
Answer: 1


36.
    Base your answer to question 36 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
36 Which United States effort is the Soviet Union
   responding to in this cartoon?
   (1) a commitment to rebuild the League of
       Nations
   (2) a plan to join with other nations to reduce
       military spending
   (3) an effort to improve United States–Soviet
       relations
   (4) an attempt to stabilize the economy of
       Western Europe
Answer: 4

37.
37 “Greece Receives U.S. Aid to Fight Communists”
   “U.S. Military Airlifts Supplies to Berlin”
   “U.S. Troops Sent to Defend South Vietnam”
   These headlines best illustrate the United States
   commitment to a policy of
   (1) détente                (3) containment
   (2) isolationism           (4) imperialism
Answer: 3

38.
38 • Alger Hiss conviction
   • Rosenberg trial
   • McCarthy hearings
   These post–World War II events are most closely
   associated with the fear of
   (1) an increase in immigration from the Soviet
       Union
   (2) labor conflicts in United States cities
   (3) an expansion of communism into Cuba
   (4) a communist threat inside the United States
Answer: 4

39.
39 The 1957 launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
   embarrassed the United States because it
   (1) allowed the Soviets to place missiles in
       Turkey
   (2) revealed that the Soviets had nuclear
       weapons
   (3) appeared that the United States had failed to
       keep up in scientific achievement
   (4) confirmed the United States use of U-2 spy
       planes
Answer: 3

40.
40 “…And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what
   your country can do for you—ask what you can do
   for your country.
   My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what
   America will do for you, but what together we can
   do for the freedom of man.…”
          — President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address,
                                         January 20, 1961
   President Kennedy sought to achieve the goal
   described in this speech through support for the
   formation of the
   (1) Peace Corps
   (2) World Bank
   (3) Organization of American States (OAS)
   (4) South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
Answer: 1

41.
    Base your answer to question 41 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
41 This poster from 1967 is an expression of
   (1) support for the foreign policy of the president
   (2) support for increased financing of environ-
       mental programs
   (3) opposition to health care reform for seniors
       and the poor
   (4) opposition to United States involvement in
       Vietnam
Answer: 4

42.
42 Which title best completes the partial outline below?
(1)   Latino Women Gain Equal Pay
(2)   Civil Rights Movement Achieves Victories
(3)   Native American Indians Regain Land Rights
(4)   Persons With Disabilities Win Educational
      Opportunities
Answer: 2

43.
43 In New York Times v. United States (1971) and
   United States v. Nixon (1974), the Supreme Court
   placed limits on the
   (1) authority of federal judges
   (2) exercise of freedom of religion
   (3) powers of the president
   (4) right of Congress to declare war
Answer: 3

44.
44 Which statement accurately describes a result of
   the 1993 adoption of the North American Free
   Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
   (1) Tariff barriers were reduced between the
       three largest nations of North America.
   (2) A single currency was created for the nations
       of North America.
   (3) Immigration restrictions between North
       American nations were eliminated.
   (4) The United States stopped importing oil from
       other North American nations.
Answer: 1

45.
Base your answer to question 45 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
45 Which situation related to the Great Recession in 2008 and 2009 is
   addressed in this cartoon?
   (1) crisis in home foreclosures
   (2) growth of federal budget deficits
   (3) shortage of health care facilities
   (4) decline in the financial stability of Social Security
Answer: 1

46.
46 “Congress Passes Alien and Sedition Acts”
   “Lincoln Suspends Writ of Habeas Corpus”
   “Roosevelt Authorizes Internment of Japanese
    Americans on West Coast”
   Which conclusion is best supported by these
   headlines?
   (1) Immigrants are a danger to the welfare of the
       United States.
   (2) Perceived threats to national security
       sometimes result in limits on civil liberties.
   (3) Foreign policy is greatly affected by domestic
       conflicts.
   (4) The power of the federal government is
       weakened by risks to national security.
Answer: 2

47.
47 In the 1880s and the 1920s, low prices for United
   States agricultural products were the result of
   (1) the overproduction of staple crops
   (2) a shortage of usable farm land
   (3) competition from cheaper imported goods
   (4) inflationary monetary policies
Answer: 1

48.
48 One way in which the Progressive movement of
   the early 1900s and the women’s rights
   movement of the 1960s are similar is that each
   resulted in
   (1) restrictions on immigration
   (2) limits on labor union activities
   (3) passage of reform legislation
   (4) a return to laissez-faire economic policies
Answer: 3

49.
49 One way in which President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt’s New Deal and President Lyndon B.
   Johnson’s Great Society are similar is that both
   programs
   (1) made civil rights for African Americans a
       major goal
   (2) drew wide support and few critics
   (3) helped to end major depressions
   (4) attempted to improve the lives of the poor
       and the aged
Answer: 4

50.
Base your answer to question 50 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
50 The low level of immigration between 1930 and 1945 is most directly related to
   (1) passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act
   (2) the Great Depression and World War II
   (3) the Cold War and the civil rights movement
   (4) improvements in living standards in Europe and Asia
Answer: 2


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Reform Movements
                 During the period from 1820 to 1933, individuals and groups participated in
                 major reform movements to bring social, political, and economic changes to
                 American society. These reform movements achieved varying degrees of success.
        Task:
                 Select two major reform movements during the period from 1820 to 1933 and for
                 each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the reform movement
                 • Discuss the extent to which the movement achieved its goal
            You may use any major reform movement during the period from 1820 to 1933.
        Suggestions you might wish to consider include the abolition movement, the woman’s suffrage
        movement, the temperance movement (prohibition), the consumer protection movement,
        the labor movement, and the conservation movement.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
NAME _______ SCHOOL _______
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout the history of the United States, wars have been fought to protect
              national security and promote the national interest. These wars have affected the
              United States and American society in many different ways. These wars include the
              Spanish-American War (1898), the Korean War (1950–1953), and the Persian
              Gulf War (1991).
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two wars mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to United States involvement in
                  the war
                • Discuss the effects of the war on the United States and/or on American society
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
       (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
       (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
           argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
                                         War Message to Congress
       …The grounds for such intervention may be briefly summarized as follows:
       First. In the cause of humanity and to put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation, and
       horrible miseries now existing there, and which the parties to the conflict are either unable or
       unwilling to stop or mitigate [lessen]. It is no answer to say this is all in another country,
       belonging to another nation, and is therefore none of our business. It is specially our duty, for it
       is right at our door.
       Second. We owe it to our citizens in Cuba to afford them that protection and indemnity
       [security] for life and property which no government there can or will afford, and to that end to
       terminate the conditions that deprive them of legal protection.
       Third. The right to intervene may be justified by the very serious injury to the commerce, trade,
       and business of our people and by the wanton [unlimited] destruction of property and
       devastation of the island.…
       The issue is now with the Congress. It is a solemn responsibility. I have exhausted every effort
       to relieve the intolerable condition of affairs which is at our doors. Prepared to execute every
       obligation imposed upon me by the Constitution and the law, I await your action.…
                                           Source: President William McKinley, Message to Congress, April 11, 1898
 1 What are two reasons President William McKinley is asking Congress to declare war? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2b
     …In the forcible annexation of the Philippines our nation neither adds to its strength nor secures
     broader opportunities for the American people.
         Even if the principle of conquest were permissible under American public law, the conquest
     of territory so remote from our shores, inhabited by people who have no sympathy with our
     history or our customs, and who resent our attempt to overthrow their declaration of
     independence, would be a tax [burden] upon our military and naval strength the magnitude of
     which cannot now be determined.
         Who can estimate in money and men the cost of subduing and keeping in subjection eight
     millions of people, six thousand miles away, scattered over twelve hundred islands and living
     under a tropical sun?…
            Source: William Jennings Bryan, “Will It Pay?,” Bryan et al., Republic or Empire? The Philippine Question,
                                                                                    The Independence Company, 1899
2 Based on documents 2a and 2b, what are two ways the United States might be affected by the Spanish-
  American War? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 3
      …The transformation of America from a provincial to a world power began in the 1890s. When
      Theodore Roosevelt took office, the first and most important steps had already been taken. By
      going to war with Spain and keeping the Philippines in 1898, America had joined the more
      ambitious industrialized world powers. With the Platt Amendment in 1901, Congress declared
      to the world its continued independence from European colonial ambitions. In his presidency
      Roosevelt supported both the expansion that had taken place and the limitations Congress
      imposed upon it, and never envisioned any further American expansion. He regarded the taking
      of Panama as a fulfillment of the most direct American strategic interest, as a way of denying
      Europe a foothold in Central America, and at the same time assuring full mobility for a two-
      ocean navy.…
                                Source: Richard H. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt, Culture, Diplomacy, and Expansion:
                                      A New View of American Imperialism, Louisiana State University Press, 1985
3 According to Richard Collin, what was one effect the Spanish-American War had on the United States? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 4
      …Korea is a small country, thousands of miles away, but what is happening there is important to
      every American.
      On Sunday, June 25th, Communist forces attacked the Republic of Korea.
      This attack has made it clear, beyond all doubt, that the international Communist movement is
      willing to use armed invasion to conquer independent nations. An act of aggression such as this
      creates a very real danger to the security of all free nations.
      The attack upon Korea was an outright breach of the peace and a violation of the Charter of the
      United Nations. By their actions in Korea, Communist leaders have demonstrated their
      contempt for the basic moral principles on which the United Nations is founded. This is a direct
      challenge to the efforts of the free nations to build the kind of world in which men can live in
      freedom and peace.…
      Furthermore, the fact that Communist forces have invaded Korea is a warning that there may
      be similar acts of aggression in other parts of the world. The free nations must be on their guard,
      more than ever before, against this kind of sneak attack.…
       Source: President Harry Truman, Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Situation in Korea,
                                                                                                       July 19, 1950
4 According to President Harry Truman, what is one reason the United States should be concerned about the
  situation in Korea? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 5
      …And so the true brutality of the war never really penetrated the American cultural
      consciousness. An estimated 33,000 Americans died in it. Another 105,000 were wounded. The
      South Koreans lost 415,000 killed and had 429,000 wounded. Both the Chinese and North
      Koreans were exceptionally secretive about their casualties, but American officials put their
      losses at roughly 1.5 million men killed. The Korean War momentarily turned the Cold War hot,
      heightening the already considerable (and mounting) tensions between the United States and
      the Communist world and deepening the chasm between the United States and Communist
      forces asserting themselves in Asia. Those tensions and divisions between the two sides in the
      bipolar struggle [taking opposing positions] grew even more serious after American
      miscalculations brought China into the war. When it was all over and an armed truce ensued,
      both sides claimed victory, though the final division of the country was no different from the one
      that had existed when the war began. But the United States was not the same: its strategic vision
      of Asia had changed, and its domestic political equation had been greatly altered.…
                        Source: David Halberstam, The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War, Hyperion, 2007
5 According to David Halberstam, what were two effects the Korean War had on the United States? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 6b
     …There is another subject that has to be addressed here today. When the guns fell silent, some
     asked what our forces in Korea had done for freedom, after all, for after all, the fighting began
     at the 38th parallel and ended at the 38th parallel. I submit to you today that looking back
     through the long lens of history, it is clear that the stand America took in Korea was
     indispensable to our ultimate victory in the cold war. Because we stood our ground in Korea, the
     Soviet Union drew a clear lesson that America would fight for freedom.…
     Because we have continued to stand with our democratic ally South Korea, with 37,000
     American troops standing watch on the border today [2000], just as we have since 1953, we have
     kept the peace. And because of all that, there is now a chance for a different future on the
     Korean Peninsula.…
     Korea helped remind us of a few other lessons, too, that our people and all our rich diversity are
     our greatest strength, that a fully integrated military is our surest hope for victory, that our
     freedom and security depends on the freedom and security of others, and that we can never,
     ever, pull away from the rest of the world.…
               Source: President Bill Clinton, Remarks on the Observance of the 50th Anniversary of the Korean War,
                                                                                                      June 25, 2000
6 Based on these documents, what were two effects the Korean War had on the United States? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
7 According to President George H. W. Bush, what is one reason the United States began air strikes in Iraq
  in January of 1991? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 8a
      …As a result of servicewomen’s performance during Operation Desert Storm, the last of the
      laws restricting women’s service were lifted by the middle of the decade. In 1992, Congress
      repealed the restriction banning servicewomen from flying in aircraft engaged in combat
      missions. In 1993, they lifted the restriction banning women from serving aboard combat vessels.
      By the turn of this [21st] century, women comprised almost 14 percent of active military duty
      personnel and were reaching the highest levels of the military.…
      While issues of equal opportunity for women in the military still remained, the distance between
      the servicewomen of 1999 and the Army nurses of 1901 who served their country before they
      could even vote was staggering.…
                                              Source: Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation
Document 8b
      …Although the Persian Gulf War was brief, its impact was no less traumatic than other wars.
      From the time the Persian Gulf War ended in 1991 to now [2009], veterans have reported a
      number of physical and mental health problems.
      Studies examining the mental health of Persian Gulf War veterans have found that rates of
      PTSD [Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder] stemming from the war range anywhere from almost
      9% to approximately 24%. These rates are higher than what has been found among veterans not
      deployed to the Persian Gulf.…
                              Source: Matthew Tull, Rates of PTSD in Veterans, about.com, July 22, 2009 (adapted)
8 Based on these documents, what were two effects the Persian Gulf War had on American society? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 9
                                The undefeated Saddam Hussein of 1991
      …The 2003 U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq can’t be viewed in isolation. The chain of
      events began more than a decade earlier with the botched close of the 1991 [Persian] Gulf War
      and then it continued in the U.S. effort to contain Saddam Hussein in the years that followed.
      “I don’t think you can understand how OIF”—the abbreviation for Operation Iraqi Freedom,
      the U.S. military’s term for the 2003 invasion and occupation of Iraq—“without understanding
      the end of the ’91 war, especially the distrust of Americans” [by Iraqis] that resulted, said Army
      Reserve Maj. Michael Eisenstadt, an intelligence officer who in civilian life is an expert on
      Middle Eastern security issues.
      The seeds of the second president Bush’s decision to invade [in 2003] were planted by the
      unfinished nature of the 1991 war, in which the U.S. military expelled Iraq from Kuwait but
      ended the fighting prematurely and sloppily, without due consideration by the first president
      Bush and his advisors of what end state they wished to achieve. In February 1991, President
      Bush gave speeches that encouraged Iraqis “to take matters into their own hands and force
      Saddam Hussein the dictator to step aside.” U.S. Air Force aircraft dropped leaflets on fielded
      Iraqi units urging them to rebel. On March 1, Iraqi army units in Basra began to do just that.…
         Source: Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, The Penguin Press, 2006 (adapted)
9 According to Thomas E. Ricks, what was one effect the 1991 Persian Gulf War had on the United States?
  [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout the history of the United States, wars have been fought to protect
                national security and promote the national interest. These wars have affected the
                United States and American society in many different ways. These wars include the
                Spanish-American War (1898), the Korean War (1950–1953), and the Persian
                Gulf War (1991).
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                    Select two wars mentioned in the historical context and for each
                    • Describe the historical circumstances that led to United States involvement in
                      the war
                    • Discuss the effects of the war on the United States and/or on American society
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                •   Develop all aspects of the task
                •   Incorporate information from at least four documents
                •   Incorporate relevant outside information
                •   Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                •   Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                    are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents June 2016 Exam


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