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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2014 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1.
1 Which New York State city is located at 42°39' N
  73°45' W?
  (1) Buffalo             (3) Ithaca
  (2) Albany              (4) Plattsburgh
Answer: 2

2.
2 Positions 1, 2, and 3 in the diagram below
  represent the noon Sun above the horizon on
  three different days during the year, as viewed
  from Binghamton, New York.
At which position was the noon Sun on January 21,
as viewed from Binghamton?
(1) above position 1
(2) below position 3
(3) between position 1 and position 2
(4) between position 2 and position 3
Answer: 4

3.
3 Which evidence best supports the theory that
  the universe began with a massive explosion?
  (1) cosmic background radiation in space
  (2) parallelism of planetary axes
  (3) radioactive dating of Earth’s bedrock
  (4) life cycle of stars
Answer: 1


4.
4 The diagram below represents the apparent path
  of the Sun as seen by an observer at 65° N on
  March 21.
The Sun’s position shown in the diagram was
observed closest to which time of day?
(1) 9 a.m.               (3) 3 p.m.
(2) 11 a.m.              (4) 6 p.m.
Answer: 3

5.
5 Which statement best describes Earth’s
  approximate rates of rotation and revolution?
  (1) Earth’s rotation rate is 15°/hour and its
      revolution rate is 1°/day.
  (2) Earth’s rotation rate is 1°/hour and its
      revolution rate is 15°/day.
  (3) Earth’s rotation rate is 24°/hour and its
      revolution rate is 360°/day.
  (4) Earth’s rotation rate is 360°/hour and its
      revolution rate is 24°/day.
Answer: 1

6.
6 The accumulation of water vapor, carbon dioxide,
  and nitrogen in Earth’s early atmosphere
  approximately 4 billion years ago resulted mainly
  from
  (1) outgassing from Earth’s interior
  (2) radioactive decay
  (3) photosynthesis by the earliest land plants
  (4) convection currents in Earth’s outer core
Answer: 1

7.
7 Fossils of which type of animal would most likely
  be found in the surface bedrock of the Catskills?
  (1) reptiles               (3) mammals
  (2) brachiopods            (4) birds
Answer: 2

8.
8 Which geologic event occurred in New York State
  at approximately the same time as the extinction
  of dinosaurs and ammonoids?
  (1) formation of the Queenston Delta
  (2) deposition of the sands and clays underlying
      Long Island
  (3) initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean
  (4) advance and retreat of the last continental
      ice sheet
Answer: 2

9.
9 The impacts of large asteroids on Earth are
  inferred to be associated with
  (1) free oxygen entering Earth’s atmosphere
  (2) seafloor spreading
  (3) the creation of subduction zones
  (4) global climatic changes
Answer: 4

10.
10 Volcanic ash deposits found in the geologic
   record are most useful in correlating the age of
   rock layers if the volcanic ash was distributed
   over a
   (1) large area during a short period of time
   (2) large area during a long period of time
   (3) small area during a short period of time
   (4) small area during a long period of time
Answer: 1

11.
11 A fossil formed 11,400 years ago. Which
   percentage of the original amount of carbon-14
   remains in the fossil?
   (1) 100%                 (3) 25%
   (2) 50%                  (4) 12.5%
Answer: 3

12.
12 A psychrometer is used to determine which
   weather variables?
   (1) wind speed and wind direction
   (2) percentage of cloud cover and cloud height
   (3) air pressure and air temperature
   (4) relative humidity and dewpoint
Answer: 4

13.
13 In the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds
   around the center of a hurricane move
   (1) clockwise and inward
   (2) clockwise and outward
   (3) counterclockwise and inward
   (4) counterclockwise and outward
Answer: 3

14.
14 Equal areas of which surface will absorb the most
   insolation?
   (1) partially melted snowfield
   (2) blacktop parking lot
   (3) white sand beach
   (4) lake surface
Answer: 2

15.
15 A city located on the coast of North America has
   warmer winters and cooler summers than a city
   at the same elevation and latitude located near
   the center of North America. Which statement
   best explains the difference between the cities’
   climates?
   (1) Ocean surfaces change temperature more
       slowly than land surfaces.
   (2) Warm, moist air rises when it meets cool,
       dry air.
   (3) Wind speeds are usually greater over land
       surfaces than over ocean surfaces.
   (4) Ocean surfaces have a lower specific heat
       than land surfaces.
Answer: 1


16.
16 Dry areas caused by sinking air and diverging
   surface winds are located at which two latitudes?
   (1) 0° and 30° N          (3) 30° N and 30° S
   (2) 0° and 60° S          (4) 60° N and 60° S
Answer: 3

17.
17 Which event is inferred by most scientists to be
   responsible for a climate change that has recently
   led to a decrease in the size of most glaciers?
   (1) a decrease in the rate of divergence of
       lithospheric plates along a mid-ocean ridge
   (2) a decrease in the amount of insolation
       reaching Earth’s surface
   (3) an increase in the amount of greenhouse
       gases in Earth’s atmosphere
   (4) an increase in the amount of vegetative cover
       in the tropics
Answer: 3

18.
18 The map below shows California and a section of
   the San Andreas Fault.
What is the primary geologic process occurring
along the San Andreas Fault?
(1) transform movement
(2) spreading movement
(3) subduction
(4) convergence
Answer: 1

19.
19 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental
   crust is usually
   (1) thicker, with a less dense granitic composition
   (2) thicker, with a more dense basaltic composition
   (3) thinner, with a less dense granitic composition
   (4) thinner, with a more dense basaltic composition
Answer: 1

20.
20 Which mantle hot spot is located directly below
   a mid-ocean ridge plate boundary?
   (1) Yellowstone          (3) Canary Islands
   (2) Iceland              (4) Hawaii
Answer: 2

21.
21 The block diagram below represents caves that
   developed in a region over time.
Which type of weathering was primarily
responsible for the development of these caves?
(1) physical weathering of sandstone
(2) physical weathering of limestone
(3) chemical weathering of sandstone
(4) chemical weathering of limestone
Answer: 4

22.
22 Which agent of erosion is most likely responsible
   for the deposition of sandbars along ocean
   shorelines?
   (1) glaciers              (3) wave action
   (2) mass movement         (4) wind action
Answer: 3

23.
23 The block diagram below represents the
   drainage basins of some river systems separated
   by highland divides, shown with dashed lines.
   The arrows show the directions of surface-water
   flow.
The three areas separated by highland divides
are called
(1) meanders            (3) watersheds
(2) floodplains         (4) tributaries
Answer: 3

24.
24 Which New York State landscape region is mostly
   composed of horizontal sedimentary bedrock at
   high elevations?
   (1) Hudson Highlands
   (2) Allegheny Plateau
   (3) Taconic Mountains
   (4) Atlantic Coastal Plain
Answer: 2

25.
25 Which characteristic do samples of the mineral
   pyroxene normally exhibit?
   (1) yellow to amber color
   (2) bubbling in hydrochloric acid
   (3) cleaves at 56° and 124°
   (4) hardness of 5 to 6
Answer: 4

26.
26 The photograph below shows the texture of a
   rock composed of various minerals as seen
   through a microscope.
Which rock is most likely shown above?
(1) sandstone             (3) dunite
(2) anthracite coal       (4) schist
Answer: 4

27.
27 Which minerals contain the two most abundant
   elements by mass in Earth’s crust?
   (1) fluorite and calcite
   (2) magnetite and pyrite
   (3) amphibole and quartz
   (4) galena and sulfur
Answer: 3

28.
28 The photograph below shows an outcrop where
   a light-colored, igneous rock is cross cut by
   a dark-colored, igneous rock.
This fine-grained, dark-colored, igneous rock is
most likely
(1) rhyolite             (3) basalt
(2) diorite              (4) gabbro
Answer: 3

29.
29 The diagram below represents positions of Earth in its orbit around the Sun and twelve
   constellations that can be seen in the midnight sky by an observer in New York State at different times of
   the year. The approximate locations of the constellations in relation to Earth’s orbit are shown.
Which date is correctly paired with two constellations that can be seen in the sky at midnight?
(1) May 21: Scorpius and Taurus                    (3) November 21: Gemini and Capricorn
(2) August 21: Libra and Virgo                     (4) February 21: Leo and Cancer
Answer: 4

30.
30 The cross section of the bedrock layers of a canyon is represented below. Letters A and B represent rock
   layers on the sides of the canyon.
Layer A can best be correlated to layer B by comparing the
(1) sediments on each side of the stream
(2) sequence of rock layers on each side of the canyon
(3) organisms currently living in rock layers A and B
(4) rate of erosion of rock layers A and B by the stream
Answer: 2

31.
31 The cross section below represents four different rock units. The symbol for contact metamorphism has been
   omitted from the cross section.
The sequence below represents the relative ages of the rock units from oldest to youngest.
                             limestone → granite → shale → sandstone
Which cross section below represents where the symbol for contact metamorphism would be located, based
on the relative age sequence?

Answer: 1

32.
    Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The cross section represents the distance and age of ocean-floor bedrock found on both sides of the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
32 According to the cross section, every 1 million years, the ocean floor bedrock moves approximately
   (1) 20 km toward the Mid-Atlantic Ridge             (3) 40 km toward the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
   (2) 20 km away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge          (4) 40 km away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Answer: 2

33.
33 Which map best represents the pattern of magnetic polarity in the minerals of ocean-floor bedrock on each
   side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?

Answer: 2

34.
34 The topographic map below shows the largest island of the Hawaiian Islands.
Which map below best shows the most likely stream drainage pattern of this island?

Answer: 1

35.
35 Photographs A and B below show two different valleys.
Which list best identifies the agent of erosion that primarily determined the shape of each valley?
(1) photograph A—glacier; photograph B—river         (3) both photographs—river
(2) photograph A—river; photograph B—glacier         (4) both photographs—glacier
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2011 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

36.
    Base your answers to questions 36 through 40 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The diagram represents the orbital paths of the four Jovian planets and Halley’s comet around the Sun. Halley’s
comet has a revolution period of 76 years. In 1986, Halley’s comet was at perihelion, its closest point to the Sun.
Letters A, B, C, and D represent locations of Halley’s comet in its orbit. Location D represents Halley’s comet
at aphelion, its farthest point from the Sun. The comet’s tail is shown at perihelion and at locations B and C.
36 Based on the pattern shown above, which diagram best represents the correct position of the comet’s tail
   at location A relative to the Sun?

Answer: 3

37.
37 Compared to the orbit of the Jovian planets, the orbit of Halley’s comet is
   (1) less elliptical, with a shorter distance between its foci
   (2) less elliptical, with a greater distance between its foci
   (3) more elliptical, with a shorter distance between its foci
   (4) more elliptical, with a greater distance between its foci
Answer: 4

38.
38 Compared to the velocity of Jupiter in its orbit, the velocity of Halley’s comet is
   (1) always less                                      (3) always the same
   (2) always greater                                   (4) sometimes less and sometimes greater
Answer: 4

39.
39 This diagram of our solar system represents a
   (1) geocentric model with the Sun near the center
   (2) geocentric model with Earth near the center
   (3) heliocentric model with the Sun near the center
   (4) heliocentric model with Earth near the center
Answer: 3

40.
40 Which sequence lists the Jovian planets in order of increasing mass?
   (1) Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus               (3) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
   (2) Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter               (4) Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter
Answer: 2

41.
   Base your answers to questions 41 through 44 on the reading passage about lake-effect snow and the radar
image map below, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The radar map shows areas where snowfall was
occurring. The whitest area indicates where snowfall was heaviest.
                                                Lake-Effect Snow
                  In late fall, cold air originating in Canada and then moving over the Great Lakes
              often produces lake-effect snow in New York State.
                  When the cold air mass moves across large areas of warmer lake water, water vapor
              enters the cold air. When this moist air moves over the cooler land, the moisture comes
              out of the atmosphere as snow. The effect is enhanced when the air that flows off the
              lake is forced over higher land elevations. The areas affected by lake-effect snow can
              receive many inches of snow per hour. As the lakes gradually freeze, the ability to
              produce lake-effect snow decreases.
41 What is the most likely two-letter air mass symbol for an air mass from Canada that produces lake-effect
   snow in New York State?
   (1) mT                                            (3) cT
   (2) mP                                            (4) cP
Answer: 4

42.
42 Which map shows the most likely direction that winds were moving across Lake Ontario to produce this
   lake-effect snow?

Answer: 1

43.
43 Which list indicates the correct sequence in the formation of a lake-effect snow cloud?
   (1) air contracts as it sinks → air warms to the dewpoint → water evaporates
   (2) air expands as it rises → air warms to the dewpoint → water vapor condenses
   (3) air contracts as it sinks → air cools to the dewpoint → water evaporates
   (4) air expands as it rises → air cools to the dewpoint → water vapor condenses
Answer: 4

44.
44 Which statement best explains why lake-effect snow decreases when lakes freeze gradually?
   (1) The ice prevents liquid water from evaporating into the atmosphere.
   (2) The lower temperature of ice makes liquid water condense at a slower rate.
   (3) More water is available to evaporate.
   (4) Ice speeds up the air moving above it, so less water can evaporate.
Answer: 1

45.
   Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The diagram represents eight numbered positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth.
45 Which phase of the Moon will be observed in New York State when the Moon is at position 8?

Answer: 3

46.
46 Which two motions cause the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases each month when viewed from
   New York State?
   (1) the Moon’s rotation and Earth’s rotation   (3) the Moon’s rotation and the Sun’s rotation
   (2) the Moon’s revolution and Earth’s rotation (4) the Moon’s revolution and the Sun’s rotation
Answer: 2

47.
47 A solar eclipse might be observed from Earth when the Moon is at which position?
   (1) 1                                           (3) 3
   (2) 5                                           (4) 7
Answer: 1

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the photograph and cross section below and on your
knowledge of Earth science. The sequence of rock types found in the walls of the Grand Canyon are shown.
The names of rock formations are shown and the upper and lower boundaries of each formation are indicated
by dashed lines. The rock layers have not been overturned.
48 The granite formation was primarily formed by
   (1) metamorphism of layered sandstone           (3) compaction of precipitated gypsum
   (2) solidification of felsic magma              (4) cementation of clastic sediments
Answer: 2

49.
49 The sequence of rock layers in the cross section provides evidence that the Muave formation is
   (1) younger than the Temple Butte, but older than the Bright Angel
   (2) younger than both the Temple Butte and the Bright Angel
   (3) older than the Temple Butte, but younger than the Bright Angel
   (4) older than both the Temple Butte and the Bright Angel
Answer: 3

50.
50 If the Vishnu schist had been exposed to greater heat and pressure during metamorphism, it could have
   formed
   (1) gneiss                                        (3) quartzite
   (2) marble                                        (4) phyllite
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

51.
  Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
                                   Coral Reefs and Ocean Currents
                 The location of shallow-water coral reefs is controlled largely by warm-water
             temperatures, which originate in tropical regions and are then widely spread by ocean
             currents. Major surface ocean currents flow in circular patterns called gyres. Ocean
             current gyres flow in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere, and flow in
             a counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. This pattern of circulation
             generally moves warm water from equatorial regions into the shallow waters along
             eastern continental coasts. This extends the range of coral reef growth approximately
             5° of latitude beyond both the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn.
51 Identify the surface ocean current that prevents the formation of coral reefs in the shallow waters along the
   western coast of South America. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Peru Current.


52.
52 Which Earth motion causes the Coriolis effect that results in the curving of the planetary winds and
   surface ocean currents? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — rotation
            — turning on its axis
            — spinning


53.
53 Identify the two prevailing planetary wind belts that provide the greatest force in pushing the surface ocean
   currents of the North Pacific Ocean gyre. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — southwest winds and northeast winds
            — NE winds and SW winds
            — prevailing southwesterly winds and northeast trade winds


54.
   Base your answers to questions 54 through 56 on the topographic map in your answer booklet and on your
knowledge of Earth science. Some contour lines have been drawn. Line AB is a reference line on the map.
 54 On the map in your answer booklet, draw the 60-meter and 70-meter contour lines. The contour lines
    should extend to the edges of the map. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for correctly drawing both the 60-m and 70-m contour lines extended to the edges
    of the map.
    Note: If additional contour lines are drawn, all must be drawn correctly to receive credit.
    Example of a 1-credit response:


55.
55 State a likely surface elevation of Pebble Lake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value greater than 90 m, but less than 100 m.


56.
56 Calculate the gradient along the reference line from A to B, in meters per kilometer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 22 m/km to 29 m/km.


57.
    Base your responses to questions 57 through 60 on the station models below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The changing weather conditions at a location in New York State during a winter storm are
recorded on the station models.
57 Complete the table in your answer booklet by recording the weather data shown on the station model for
   12 noon Thursday. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all three weather variables for 12 noon Thursday are correctly recorded.


58.
58 State the relative humidity at this location at 8 p.m. Thursday. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 100%.
                                         1


59.
59 From 12 noon Thursday until 8 p.m. Thursday, the total amount of snowfall was 12 inches. Calculate the
   snowfall rate, in inches per hour. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 1.5 in/h or 1 __
                                         2
                                           in/h.
                                         12
                                         __         3
                                                   __
         Note: Do not allow credit for    8
                                              or    2
                                                        in/h because these do not show a complete calculation.


60.
60 As this storm approached, the National Weather Service issued a winter storm warning. Identify two items
   that should be included in emergency preparedness supplies for a winter storm. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable items. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — first aid kit
            — blankets
            — batteries
            — radio
            — flashlight
            — bottled water
            — food
            — generator
            — necessary medications


61.
   Base your responses to questions 61 through 64 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The diagram represents portions of the water cycle. Letters A, B, and C represent processes in the water cycle.
Arrows show the movement of water.
61 Identify one process represented by A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for transpiration or evaporation/vaporization or evapotranspiration.


62.
62 Identify the process represented by B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — infiltration
            — water seeping into the ground
            — absorption/recharge of the storage
            — seeping/seepage/percolation
            — water entering/soaking/sinking into the soil
        Note: Do not allow credit for:
              “precipitation” (The arrows are underground.)
              “saturation” (It is not a process.)
              “drainage” (Drainage can also be surface runoff.)


63.
63 Describe the general relationship between the amount of rainfall and the amount of runoff represented
   by C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — As precipitation/rainfall increases, runoff increases.
            — More rain leads to more runoff.
            — direct relationship
            — Runoff is usually less than rainfall.


64.
64 What is the main source of energy for the water cycle? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — the Sun
            — insolation
            — solar radiation/solar energy
            — sunlight


65.
65 Identify a process occurring in the plastic mantle that is inferred to cause tectonic plate motion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — convection
            — convective circulation
            — slab pull
            — subduction
            — convection currents
            — magma rising



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science.

66.
    Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The
graph shows the changes in ocean tide height at a New York State location during 1 day.
66 Determine the tide height and time of day for the lowest tide shown on the graph. Include a.m. or p.m. in
   your answer for the time of day. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both the tide height and time of day, including p.m., are correct.
            Tide height: any value from 0.58 m to 0.6 m.
            Time: any value from 8:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m.


67.
67 Explain why the Moon has a greater influence on Earth tides than the Sun. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The Moon is closer to Earth.
            — The Moon’s gravitational pull is stronger because the Moon is closer to Earth than the Sun is.
        Note: Do not allow credit for “The Moon’s gravity is stronger” alone because the Moon’s distance
              from Earth is not described.


68.
    Base your answers to questions 68 through 71 on the table below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The table provides information about sunlight received on four dates of a certain year. Letter A represents a
date. The arrows indicate the Sun’s direct rays.
68 Identify one possible date represented by letter A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for the correct month and day of March 19 or March 20 or March 21 or March 22.


69.
69 State the numerical latitude at which the Sun is directly overhead at noon on December 21. Include the
   units and compass direction in your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from 23.4° S to 23.5° S. The acceptable unit and compass direction
       must be included.
                                                                           1
        Note: Allow credit if the student indicates a fraction, such as 23 ––
                                                                            2
                                                                              ° or minute form, such as
              23° 30′ S, for the decimal value.


70.
70 State the number of daylight hours occurring north of the Arctic Circle on June 21. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 24 h.


71.
71 Explain why the Sun’s direct rays are at different latitudes as Earth revolves around the Sun. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5 degrees from a line perpendicular to the plane of Earth’s orbit.
            — axis is tilted
            — Earth’s axis is always parallel to itself at any other place in Earth’s orbit.
            — parallelism of Earth’s axis
            — Earth’s axis is always aligned with the North Star (Polaris) as Earth orbits the Sun.


72.
    Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the passage and diagram below and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The diagram represents some of the Burgess shale community of organisms that existed
together during part of the Cambrian Period. Thirteen different types of organisms are numbered in the diagram.
                                             Burgess Shale Fossils
                  The Burgess shale fossil discovery revealed unique Cambrian life-forms, most of
              which were not present in the previously known fossil record. Normally, soft body parts
              of dead organisms are destroyed by scavengers and bacteria on the ocean floor.
              However, in the deep-water depositional environment of the Burgess shale, oxygen was
              lacking and organisms were buried rapidly, preserving the unique community seen in
              the diagram. The soft-bodied organisms had previously been unknown. The Burgess
              shale fossils were originally found in a layer of bedrock in southwestern Canada.
72 During which epoch of the Cambrian Period were the Burgess shale organisms and sediments deposited? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Middle Cambrian Epoch.


73.
73 Explain why so many soft body parts of organisms were preserved in the Burgess shale. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — They were rapidly buried by sediment deposition.
            — Oxygen was lacking.
            — It was a deep-water environment.


74.
74 Identify the number of one organism in the diagram that is most likely a trilobite. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 4, 5, 7, or 9.


75.
    Base your answers to questions 75 through 78 on the three diagrams below and on your knowledge of Earth
science. The diagrams represent stages in the formation of a large depositional feature formed as a river deposited
sediment over time in the ocean. Letter A represents a location in the ocean.
75 State the name of this large depositional feature forming in the ocean. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for delta or any specific type of delta.


76.
76 Describe the arrangement of the sediments deposited where the river enters the ocean. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Larger particles are deposited in shallow water and smaller particles are carried farther
              from the shore.
            — horizontal sorting/biggest to smallest
            — boulders, pebbles, sand, silt, clay/decreasing order of sizes
            — The sediment is sorted.
            — The sediment is arranged in beds or layers/vertically sorted.
            — Higher-density particles are deposited first.


77.
77 Identify the largest particle diameter of sediment that can be carried by the water current at location A, if
   the water has a velocity of 0.05 cm/s. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for any value from 0.0008 cm to 0.001 cm.


78.
78 Large amounts of dissolved calcite were carried by the river into the ocean and precipitated onto the ocean
   floor. Identify the sedimentary rock composed only of calcite that most likely formed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for limestone.


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of
Earth science. The diagram represents the star patterns of the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper relative
to Earth’s horizon. Dashed vertical reference lines are shown for four of the stars. Polaris is labeled.
 79 On the diagram in your answer booklet, place an X at a point on the horizon line to indicate due north. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the student’s X is located within or touches the clear rectangle.
    Note: Allow credit if a symbol other than an X is used.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be used
          to ensure reliability in rating.


80.
80 Record, to the nearest whole degree, the altitude of Polaris if these constellations were observed from
   Slide Mountain in New York State. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 42°.


81.
    Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the data table below, on the graph in your answer booklet, and
on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the velocity of seismic S-waves at various depths
below Earth’s surface. The graph shows the velocity of seismic P-waves at various depths below Earth’s surface.
Letter A is a point on the graph.
81 On the graph in your answer booklet, plot the S-wave velocity at each depth given on the data table.
   Connect the plots with a line. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all seven student plots are within or touch the circles shown below
    and are correctly connected with a line that passes within or touches the circles.
    Note: Allow credit even if the student extends the line beyond 2900 km.
          It is recommended that an overlay of the same scale as the student answer booklet be
          used to ensure reliability in rating.


82.
82 What property of Earth’s interior causes the S-waves to stop at 2900 km, but allows the P-waves to
   continue? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — The outer core is a liquid.
        — The interior temperature of Earth is above the melting point.
        — The outer core absorbs S-waves.
        — S-waves cannot travel through a liquid.
        — They can not travel through a fluid.


83.
83 State the pressure and temperature of Earth’s interior at the depth indicated by point A on the graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct.
            Pressure: any value from 0.7 million atmospheres to 0.9 million atmospheres.
            Interior temperature: any value from 4100°C to 4300°C.


84.
   Base your answers to questions 84 and 85 on the flowchart below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The flowchart shows the evolution of stars.
84 Identify the force responsible for the contraction of a nebula (a gas cloud of molecules) to form a protostar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — gravity
            — gravitational attraction


85.
85 Describe how the diameter and luminosity of a main sequence star change as the star becomes either
   a giant or a supergiant. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit if both responses are correct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        Diameter:
            — increases
            — becomes larger
        Luminosity:
            — increases
            — higher rate of energy emission
            — The star appears brighter.



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents June 2014 Exam


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