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Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2012 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Based on the information shown on this map, in which region was the Middle Kingdom
  of Assyria located?
  (1) southwest Asia                      (3) South America
  (2) western Africa                      (4) western Europe
Answer: 1

2.
2 The Middle Kingdom of Assyria was located in an area also known as the
  (1) subcontinent                       (3) Fertile Crescent
  (2) Holy Land                          (4) rooftop of the world
Answer: 3

3.
3 In studying the United Nations, an example of a
  secondary source would be
  (1) the charter establishing the United Nations
  (2) a speech written by the Secretary General for
      the 5oth anniversary of the United Nations
  (3) a description in an encyclopedia of the first
      session of the United Nations Security Council
  (4) photographs of the opening ceremonies at
      the original site of the United Nations
Answer: 3


4.
4 One way in which the people of the Tibetan
  kingdom and the people of the Inca Empire are
  similar is that they
  (1) developed coastal ports
  (2) adapted mountainous terrains
  (3) designed ships to conduct global trade
  (4) introduced camel caravans as their primary
      form of transportation
Answer: 2

5.
Base your answer to question 5 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.
5 Based on this time line, which generalization can best be supported from the information
  presented?
  (1) By 1500, the Chinese were importing Western technology.
  (2) Isolationism prevented the Chinese from developing new inventions.
  (3) The Chinese successfully protected their inventions from Western spies.
  (4) Prior to 1500, Chinese technology surpassed that of the West.
Answer: 4

6.
6 What is one way in which animism, Shinto, and
  Daoism are similar?
  (1) emphasis on harmony with nature
  (2) monotheistic belief systems
  (3) belief in the idea of nirvana
  (4) reliance on the teachings of the Vedas
Answer: 1

7.
7 One role Korea had in the development of East
  Asia was
  (1) protecting China from a Japanese invasion
      along China’s western frontier
  (2) challenging Japan for control of Southeast
      Asian islands
  (3) allying itself with the Vietnamese to conquer
      China
  (4) passing cultural ideas from China to Japan
Answer: 4

8.
8 Which areas did the Mongols conquer and
  incorporate into their empire?
  (1) China, Russia, and Iran
  (2) Axum, Zimbabwe, and West Africa
  (3) Spain, France, and Egypt
  (4) Japan, India, and eastern Europe
Answer: 1

9.
9 What was one result of the Commercial
  Revolution in Europe?
  (1) decrease in the size of the middle class
  (2) expansion of the manor system
  (3) development of financial institutions
  (4) wider use of the barter system
Answer: 3

10.
10 Which factor contributed to Mali becoming a
   wealthy kingdom?
   (1) enforcement of mercantilist policies
   (2) alliances with the Hanseatic League
   (3) control of Mediterranean trade routes
   (4) dominance of the gold and salt trade
Answer: 4

11.
11 During the 14th century, the Black Death
   became a widespread epidemic primarily
   because of
   (1) the resurgence of trade
   (2) Chinese overseas exploration
   (3) European colonial policies
   (4) new agricultural practices
Answer: 1

12.
    Base your answers to questions 12 and 13 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   … Aside from female saints, the women described
   in the greatest detail by Byzantine authors are
   empresses and aristocrats. Although they had a
   certain amount of freedom, these women were
   held to very much the same standards as average
   women in Byzantine society: modesty, piety, and
   self-control were traits of an ideal woman. To
   preserve their modesty, young unmarried women
   rarely went out in public alone, and married
   women who did not have jobs outside the home
   left the house only for specific reasons, such as to
   go to the market, to church, or to the baths. By
   the middle Byzantine period, it was thought
   appropriate for women, when they did go out, to
   cover their heads.…
        — Molly Fulghum Heintz, “Work,” in Ioli Kalavrezou,
      Byzantine Women and Their World, Harvard University
                           Art Museums, 2003 (adapted)
12 What is the primary theme of this passage?
   (1) social mobility      (3) cultural values
   (2) economic interests   (4) natural rights
Answer: 3

13.
13 Which statement about Byzantine society is best
   supported by this passage?
   (1) Empresses and aristocrats were more
       important than female saints.
   (2) All women were expected to adhere to similar
       standards.
   (3) Most women had jobs outside the home.
   (4) Young unmarried women were encouraged to
       be independent.
Answer: 2

14.
14 Which factor most contributed to the cultural
   diversity of the Ottoman Empire?
   (1) legal system based on the Qur’an (Koran)
   (2) central location spanning Europe, Africa, and
       Asia
   (3) alliances with the Russians and Hapsburgs
   (4) reliance on colonies in the Americas
Answer: 2

15.
    Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: The chief problem with the Roman
           Catholic Church is the practice of selling
           indulgences. The only way for Christians
           to receive salvation is through faith alone.
Speaker B: If Christians want to be saved, they
           should perform good deeds and ask for
           forgiveness of sins. The granting of
           indulgences allows Christians to be
           excused for their sins.
Speaker C: It is true that the Bible, and not
           members of the clergy, is the ultimate
           source of religious truth. However, God
           has already decided who will be saved
           and who will not.
Speaker D: Since the Pope does not agree with my
           position, I have decided to separate
           from the Roman Catholic Church. I am
           now not only the head of England but
           also of the Anglican Church.
15 Which speaker most closely reflects the ideas of
   Martin Luther?
   (1) A                   (3) C
   (2) B                   (4) D
Answer: 1

16.
16 Which speaker best supports the idea of
   predestination taught by John Calvin?
   (1) A                     (3) C
   (2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 3

17.
17 In the late 140os and early 150os, what was a
   major reason for the European voyages of
   exploration?
   (1) introduction of Enlightenment ideas
   (2) desire to control Constantinople
   (3) rapid industrialization
   (4) need for alternate trade routes
Answer: 4

18.
18 A study of the achievements of pre-Columbian
   Mesoamerican cultures would show that they
   (1) sustained dense populations through
       intensive agriculture
   (2) engaged in an extensive exploration of the
       Pacific Ocean
   (3) built vehicles with wheels to transport goods
   (4) developed rice paper and wood-block printing
Answer: 1

19.
    Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … In addition, after the last battle they were afraid
   of the horses and guns, of our swords and crossbows
   and our good fighting. Above all was the great mercy
   of God, Who gave us the strength to keep on.…
     — Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Bernal Díaz Chronicles,
                                     Doubleday & Company
19 In this passage about a conflict in Mexico, whose
   perspective is being expressed?
   (1) Aztec warrior
   (2) Spanish conquistador
   (3) Portuguese explorer
   (4) Inca emperor
Answer: 2

20.
20 According to this author, which factors were
   influencing the outcome of the conflict?
   (1) efficiency and education
   (2) climate and disease
   (3) tribute and tradition
   (4) technology and fear
Answer: 4


21.
21 What was one effect of the Latin American
   revolutions of the 19th century?
   (1) Democracy became the dominant political
       system in Latin America.
   (2) European      colonialism    replaced the
       independent governments of Latin America.
   (3) Many Latin American countries achieved
       independence.
   (4) Countries in Latin America deported most
       people with European ancestry.
Answer: 3

22.
22 Galileo Galilei and Sir Issac Newton are most
   closely associated with
   (1) initiating religious reforms
   (2) leading political revolutions
   (3) conducting investigative experiments
   (4) engaging in foreign conquests
Answer: 3

23.
23 Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins are
   best known for
   (1) instituting the Reign of Terror
   (2) protecting freedom of religion
   (3) supporting the reign of King Louis XVI
   (4) sending French troops to fight in the
       American Revolution
Answer: 1

24.
24 The unification of Italy and the unification of
   Germany show that
   (1) socialism was an effective way of organizing
       the economy
   (2) nationalism could be used to consolidate
       political interests
   (3) colonialism could be used to spread
       European civilization
   (4) interdependence was a significant obstacle to
       waging war
Answer: 2

25.
25 During the Industrial Revolution, which development resulted from the other three?
   (1) Factory conditions affected people’s health.
   (2) Labor unions were formed.
   (3) Unskilled laborers received low wages.
   (4) Machinery replaced workers.
Answer: 2

26.
26 Which phrase best illustrates the theory of
   laissez-faire capitalism?
   (1) businesses operating with little government
        regulation
   (2) the state establishing production quotas
   (3) central planning committees setting prices on
        goods
   (4) decisions related to distribution being based
        on community traditions
Answer: 1

27.
27 According to Thomas Malthus, the rate of
   increase for human populations in relation to the
   rate of increase for food production was a
   problem. Malthus believed that
   (1) industrial development would severely limit
       population growth
   (2) famine and war were natural checks on
       population growth
   (3) countries with larger populations would
       conquer countries with smaller populations
   (4) food production would increase at a faster
       rate than populations would
Answer: 2

28.
Base your answer to question 28 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 What is the primary focus of this map?
   (1) population density                   (3) imperialism
   (2) resource distribution                (4) urbanization
Answer: 3

29.
29 An incompetent government, massacres on
   Bloody Sunday, and the high costs of World War I
   were causes of the
   (1) Mexican Revolution
   (2) Boxer Rebellion
   (3) Sepoy Mutiny
   (4) Russian Revolution
Answer: 4

30.
30 Which reform is most closely associated with
   Turkish leader Kemal Atatürk?
   (1) implementation of Sharia law
   (2) introduction of Arabic script
   (3) establishment of a communist government
   (4) adoption of Western culture
Answer: 4

31.
    Base your answer to question 31 on the image
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
31 Based on this image, women deserve the right to
   vote because
   (1) they contribute to society in many ways
   (2) they can only obtain industrial jobs if they can
       vote
   (3) only women understand what it takes to raise
       children
   (4) without the right to vote women cannot be
       taxed
Answer: 1

32.
32 Which leader is associated with civil disobedience
   and the Salt March?
   (1) Kwame Nkrumah          (3) Mohandas Gandhi
   (2) Jomo Kenyatta          (4) Ho Chi Minh
Answer: 3

33.
33 Which sequence of events is in the correct
   chronological order?
   (1) rise of Nazism → Treaty of Versailles →
       German invasion of the Soviet Union
   (2) Treaty of Versailles → rise of Nazism →
       German invasion of the Soviet Union
   (3) German invasion of the Soviet Union → rise
       of Nazism → Treaty of Versailles
   (4) Treaty of Versailles → German invasion of the
       Soviet Union → rise of Nazism
Answer: 2

34.
34 Mao Zedong and some of the survivors of the
   Long March emerged as the core leaders in
   which country?
   (1) Angola           (3) China
   (2) Cambodia         (4) Nicaragua
Answer: 3

35.
    Base your answer to question 35 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … All this means that the people of any country
   have the right, and should have the power by
   constitutional action, by free unfettered
   [unrestrained] elections, with secret ballot, to
   choose or change the character or form of
   government under which they dwell; that
   freedom of speech and thought should reign; that
   courts of justice, independent of the executive,
   unbiased by any party, should administer laws
   which have received the broad assent of large
   majorities or are consecrated by time and custom.
   Here are the title deeds of freedom which should
   lie in every cottage home. Here is the message of
   the British and American peoples to mankind.
   Let us preach what we practise — let us practise
   what we preach.…
                    — Winston Churchill, Sinews of Peace
                 (the Iron Curtain speech), March 5, 1946
35 In this excerpt, Winston Churchill is maintaining
   that the people of a country have a right to
   (1) economic prosperity
   (2) collective security
   (3) self-determination
   (4) freedom of religion
Answer: 3


36.
    Base your answer to question 36 on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
36 Which policy is the focus of this diagram?
   (1) apartheid              (3) appeasement
   (2) isolationism           (4) neutrality
Answer: 1

37.
37 One way in which the Chinese Revolution
   (1945–1949) and the Cuban Revolution
   (1956–1959) are similar is that the leaders of both
   revolutions
   (1) embraced capitalist ideas
   (2) rejected industrial development
   (3) used peaceful methods to achieve their goals
   (4) relied on support from the peasants
Answer: 4

38.
38 Which statement about Shah Reza Pahlavi and
   the Iranian Revolution is an opinion rather than a
   fact?
   (1) Shah Reza Pahlavi was supported by major
       Western powers.
   (2) Members of the Islamic clergy opposed Shah
       Reza Pahlavi.
   (3) The primary cause for the revolution was the
       exile of Shah Reza Pahlavi’s critics.
   (4) Supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
       overthrew Shah Reza Pahlavi.
Answer: 3

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the poem
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
               In The Quiet Land
           (by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)
   In the Quiet Land, no one can tell
   if there’s someone who’s listening
   for secrets they can sell.
   The informers are paid in the blood of the land
   and no one dares speak what the tyrants won’t stand.
   In the quiet land of Burma,
   no one laughs and no one thinks out loud.
   In the quiet land of Burma,
   you can hear it in the silence of the crowd.…
39 The author is using this poem to condemn
   (1) oppression             (3) nonviolence
   (2) illiteracy             (4) containment
Answer: 1

40.
40 By the late 197os in China, the growing size of its
   population influenced the government’s decision
   to
   (1) encourage people to migrate to other
       countries
   (2) force families to work on communes
   (3) engage in wars to gain territory
   (4) institute a one-child policy
Answer: 4

41.
41 During the Cold War, which event occurred last?
   (1) Cuban missile crisis
   (2) destruction of the Berlin Wall
   (3) Berlin airlift
   (4) launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union
Answer: 2

42.
Base your answer to question 42 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
42 What do the darkest areas of this map represent?
   (1) former republics of the Soviet Union
   (2) current members of the European Union
   (3) original member countries of the Warsaw Pact
   (4) recent additions to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Answer: 1

43.
    Base your answer to question 43 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … The expansion of communications meant that
   the world got more deeply connected and
   became “flat,” in Thomas Friedman’s famous
   formulation. Cheap phone calls and broadband
   made it possible for people to do jobs for one
   country in another country—marking the next
   stage in the ongoing story of capitalism. With the
   arrival of big ships in the fifteenth century, goods
   became mobile. With modern banking in the
   seventeenth century, capital became mobile. In
   the 199os, labor became mobile. People could
   not necessarily go to where the jobs were, but
   jobs could go to where people were. And they
   went to programmers in India, telephone
   operators in the Philippines, and radiologists in
   Thailand. The cost of transporting goods and
   services has been falling for centuries. With the
   advent [coming] of broadband, it has dropped to
   zero for many services. Not all jobs can be
   outsourced—not by a long shot—but the effect of
   outsourcing can be felt everywhere.…
              — Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World,
                         W. W. Norton & Company, 2008
43 Which conclusion about the global economy is
   best supported by this 2008 passage?
   (1) The labor market in Asia relies on child labor.
   (2) Technology has decreased the cost of doing
       business.
   (3) Capitalism has not met the needs of the
       working class.
   (4) Globalization is creating fewer jobs.
Answer: 2

44.
44 One way in which the ancient city-state of Athens
   and the Gupta Empire are similar is that both
   (1) allowed universal suffrage
   (2) developed matriarchal societies
   (3) promoted art and literature
   (4) established plantation agriculture
Answer: 3

45.
45 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
      I. _______
         A. Development of a stable food supply
         B. Establishment of permanent settlements
         C. Development of writing systems and
            religions
   (1)   Effects of the Migration of People
   (2)   Results of the Neolithic Revolution
   (3)   Achievements During Feudalism
   (4)   Causes of the Green Revolution in Agriculture
Answer: 2

46.
46 The Code of Hammurabi of Babylon and the
   Justinian Code of the Byzantine Empire served
   functions similar to the
   (1) Ziggurats of the Sumerians
   (2) Buddhist stupas
   (3) Maya hieroglyphics
   (4) Twelve Tables of the Romans
Answer: 4

47.
47 In England, the key principles of the Magna
   Carta were fundamental to the development and
   growth of
   (1) democracy            (3) absolutism
   (2) theocracy            (4) communism
Answer: 1

48.
48 Some archaeologists believe the earliest human
   presence in the Americas is associated with the
   (1) migration of nomads across the Bering Strait
   (2) exploration of the Caribbean by Europeans
   (3) movement of tribes during the Bantu
       migration
   (4) journey of traders along the Silk Roads
Answer: 1

49.
49 In the early 193os, millions of Ukrainians died as
   a result of
   (1) the intifada           (3) a forced famine
   (2) glasnost               (4) trench warfare
Answer: 3

50.
Base your answer to question 50 on the graphs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
50 Which generalization can best be supported using the information in these graphs?
   (1) Conflicts between religious groups in Afghanistan have divided the country.
   (2) Western countries have had a major influence on the cultural makeup of Afghanistan.
   (3) The primary languages in Afghanistan are Turkic.
   (4) Diversity is evident in Afghanistan.
Answer: 4


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Human and Physical Geography
                 Throughout history, geographic features have influenced the development of
                 civilizations and regions. Geographic features have both promoted and limited
                 interactions with other civilizations and regions.
        Task:
                 Select two different geographic features and for each
                 • Discuss how this geographic feature influenced the development of a specific
                   civilization or region
                 • Discuss how this geographic feature promoted and/or limited the interaction
                   of this civilization or region with another civilization or region
           You may use any geographic feature from your study of global history and geography.
        Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Nile River, Atlantic Ocean, Himalayas,
        Sahara Desert, Great Northern Plain, location of Japan, Mediterranean Sea, Russian steppes,
        Brazilian rain forest, and Indian Ocean monsoons.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
         Do not use a specific geographic feature within the United States in your answer.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, autocratic leaders have exercised authority over their countries
              and the lives of their people. The actions of autocratic leaders have both helped and
              hurt their countries and their peoples. Examples of such leaders include Emperor
              Shi Huangdi, Czar Peter the Great, and King Louis XIV.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
             answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
             questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               Select two leaders mentioned in the historical context and for each
               • Describe actions taken by the leader that show this individual was an autocrat
               • Discuss the extent to which this leader’s use of autocratic power helped and/or
                 hurt his country or his people
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
1 Based on the characteristics shown in this document, what is the overall goal of an autocrat? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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54.
Document 2
   Shi Huangdi, first emperor of the Qin dynasty, used warfare to weaken six of the seven warring states.
His efforts to unify China led to the consolidation of his power.
       … The Qin [under Shi Huangdi] made many changes that were meant to unify China and aid in
       administrative tasks. First, the Qin implemented a Legalist form of government, which was how
       the former Qin territory had been governed. The area was divided up in 36 commanderies which
       were then subdivided into counties. These commanderies had a civil governor, a military
       commander, and an imperial inspector. The leaders of the commanderies had to report to the
       Emperor in writing. The Legalist form of government involved rewards and punishments to
       keep order. Also, the state had absolute control over the people, and the former nobility lost all
       of their power. The nobility were also transplanted from their homes to the capital. Groups were
       formed of units of five to ten families, which then had a group responsibility for the wrongdoings
       of any individual within the group.…
                                          Source: “Qin Dynasty,” EMuseum, Minnesota State University at Mankato
 2 Based on this EMuseum document, what were two ways the Qin under Shi Huangdi attempted to control
   China? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 3a
      … His [Shi Huangdi’s] most significant reforms were to standardise Chinese script [writing],
      weights and measures and even the length of cart axles so that every cart could run smoothly in
      the ruts. An extensive new network of roads and canals improved trade and the movement of
      troops between provinces.…
                                          Source: “The Emperor with an ego big enough for all time,” Timesonline
3a Based on this document, what was one way Shi Huangdi’s actions helped China? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
Document 3b
  Li Si was a strong supporter of legalism and served as the Grand Counselor to Emperor Shi Huangdi. In this
passage, Li Si is responding to a scholar who has challenged the Emperor’s movement away from traditional
values.
       … “I humbly propose that all historical records but those of Chin [Qin] be burned. If anyone
       who is not a court scholar dares to keep the ancient songs, historical records or writings of the
       hundred schools, these should be confiscated and burned by the provincial governor and army
       commander. Those who in conversation dare to quote the old songs and records should be
       publicly executed; those who use old precedents [examples] to oppose the new order should
       have their families wiped out; and officers who know of such cases but fail to report them should
       be punished in the same way.
           “If thirty days after the issuing of this order the owners of these books have still not had them
       destroyed, they should have their faces tattooed and be condemned to hard labour at the Great
       Wall. The only books which need not be destroyed are those dealing with medicine, divination
       and agriculture. Those who want to study the law can learn it from the officers.” The emperor
       sanctioned this proposal.…
                                              Source: Szuma Chien, Records of the Historian, The Commercial Press
3b According to Li Si’s proposal, what was one way Shi Huangdi could control the people of China? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4
       … On August 8, 1700, Peter made his historic decision to declare war on Sweden, in order to
       open a road* from Russia to the West by the conquest of the Baltic littoral [coastal region]. He
       had secured the collaboration of Poland and Denmark, but his alliance with these two rivals of
       Sweden was to prove ineffectual. With nothing to rely on but his own forces, Peter was defeated
       at Narva by the valiant Swedish King, Charles XII. Refusing to be discouraged by this defeat,
       Peter raised and equipped new armies; he put immense effort into creating a good artillery; he
       worked with his own hands on the construction of the frigates [ships] that were to give him
       mastery of the Baltic. Then his disciplined and well-trained regiments seized the mouth of the
       Neva [River] and entrenched themselves along the coveted [desired] littoral. On June 27, 1709,
       in a battle at Poltava, he put his great adversary, Charles XII, to flight.…
       Source: Constantine de Grunwald, “A Window on the West,” in Christopher Hibbert, ed., The Pen and the Sword,
                                                                                         Newsweek Books (adapted)
      *road: a place less enclosed than a harbor where ships may ride at anchor
4a According to Constantine de Grunwald, what was Peter the Great hoping to accomplish with his war on
   Sweden? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
b According to Constantine de Grunwald, what was one action taken by Peter the Great to overcome his
  defeat at Narva? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 5
      … In 1722 the establishment of the Table of Ranks brought to its logical conclusion a process
      that had been evolving for three centuries. It imposed obligatory lifelong state service on all
      ranks of the nobility. It established fourteen equivalent grades in the military, naval, and civil
      service and required that even princes of the most exalted families should begin at the lowest
      grade and work their way up the ladder. The Table of Ranks offered the privileges of nobility to
      anyone who performed state service and made service to the state the principal basis for
      privilege.…
                               Source: Peter Brock Putnam, Peter, The Revolutionary Tsar, Harper & Row, Publishers
5 According to Peter Brock Putnam, in what way did the introduction of the Table of Ranks attempt to reduce
  the influence of the old aristocracy? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 6
      … How great an effect did Peter have upon Russia? When he came to the throne, Russia was
      an insignificant state. He made it into a great power feared by all. At his accession [assumption
      of the throne] Russia had no armed forces except for the inefficient and untrustworthy Streltsy
      [hereditary military units]. When he died, there was a professional army of 210,000 men. He
      created a navy out of nothing, leaving behind him a fleet of forty-eight ships-of-the-line and
      many smaller vessels.…
          Peter signally [noticeably] failed to create the large, thriving middle class that Russia needed.
      In spite of the most strenuous efforts, Russia’s commerce and industry remained dependent
      upon the Tsar, so that when he died, there were not enough wealthy, far-sighted traders and
      industrialists to develop what he had begun. This lack of private initiative and enterprise was to
      remain one of Russia’s greatest social weaknesses until the Communist Revolution of 1917.…
                                                     Source: Michael Gibson, Peter the Great, Wayland Publishers
6 According to Michael Gibson, what were two effects Peter the Great’s rule had on Russia? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


61.
Document 7
                                  How Louis Kept the Nobles in Order
      …That it might be amusing for the nobles to obey the king, Louis built a splendid new royal
      residence at Versailles, near Paris, where he established the most brilliant court ever known in
      Europe. The most influencial nobles were encouraged, and even commanded, to leave their
      castles in the country, where life at best was dull, and to come and live with the king at Versailles.
      Here the king provided amusements for them, and here he could keep his eye on them. The
      nobles could not well be discourteous or disobedient to the king while they lived in his house
      and ate at his table. Almost without knowing it, Louis’s noble guests fell into the habit of trying
      to please him. The king’s manners were imitated, his words repeated. All smiled when the king
      smiled, all were sad when the king was sad, “all were devout when the king was devout, and all
      were sorry not to be ill when the king was ill.” If a noble at court displeased the king, he was sent
      back to the country to live in his own house, in which case everyone felt—and he did too—that
      he was in deep disgrace.…
                                               Source: Carl L. Becker, Modern History, Silver, Burdett and Company
7 According to Carl Becker, what was one way that Louis XIV attempted to control the nobility? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


62.
Document 8
      … More and more Louis tried to impose uniformity in religious affairs. In the 168os he
      intensified persecution of Protestants; his actions made the edict [of Nantes] nothing but a scrap
      of paper. Finally in 1685 he declared that the majority of French Protestants had been converted
      to Catholicism and that therefore there was no need for the edict. It was revoked.
          Now Louis launched a reign of terror. He refused to allow French Protestants to leave the
      country. He promised that those who remained could worship privately, free of persecution, but
      never kept the promise. Their churches were torn down, their gatherings forbidden, their
      children made to attend mass. The Waldensians in Savoy were massacred, and six hundred
      Protestants “caught making assemblies” were executed. Perhaps two hundred and fifty thousand
      fled abroad to escape persecution.…
                                      Source: Milton Meltzer, Ten Kings and the Worlds They Ruled, Orchard Books
8 According to Milton Meltzer, what was one action Louis XIV took in an attempt to control the Protestants
  in France? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


63.
Document 9
  In this excerpt, Barbara Tuchman is commenting on the effects of Louis XIV’s policy toward the Huguenots.
     … Recent [196os and 197os scholarly] studies have concluded that the economic damage done
     to France by the Huguenot [French Protestants] emigration has been overrated, it being only
     one element in the larger damage caused by the wars. Of the political damage, however, there
     is no question. The flood of anti-French pamphlets and satires issued by Huguenot printers and
     their friends in all the cities where they settled aroused antagonism to France to new heat. The
     Protestant coalition against France was strengthened when Brandenburg entered into alliance
     with Holland, and the smaller German principalities joined. In France itself the Protestant faith
     was reinvigorated by persecution and the feud with Catholics revived. A prolonged revolt of the
     Camisard Huguenots in the Cévennes, a mountainous region of the south, brought on a cruel
     war of repression, weakening the state. Here and among other Huguenot communities which
     remained in France, a receptive base was created for the Revolution to come.…
                      Source: Barbara W. Tuchman, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam, Alfred A. Knopf, 1984
9 According to Barbara Tuchman, what was one political consequence of Louis XIV’s policy toward the
  Huguenots? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


64.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant
            facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, autocratic leaders have exercised authority over their countries
                and the lives of their people. The actions of autocratic leaders have both helped and
                hurt their countries and their peoples. Examples of such leaders include Emperor
                Shi Huangdi, Czar Peter the Great, and King Louis XIV.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                 Select two leaders mentioned in the historical context and for each
                 • Describe actions taken by the leader that show this individual was an autocrat
                 • Discuss the extent to which this leader’s use of autocratic power helped and/or
                   hurt his country or his people
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2012 Exam


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