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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2011 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 During the colonial period, goods were most
  commonly transported on
  (1) rivers              (3) railroads
  (2) canals              (4) turnpikes
Answer: 1

2 Which protection in the Bill of Rights is most
  directly related to the 1735 trial of John Peter
  (1) freedom of the press
  (2) right to bear arms
  (3) ban on unreasonable searches
  (4) freedom from double jeopardy
Answer: 1

3 In the publication Common Sense, Thomas Paine
  argued that
  (1) foreign nations would reject an independent
      American government
  (2) the British government would be impossible
      to overthrow
  (3) America was dependent on British trade and
  (4) the American colonies should break away
      from England
Answer: 4

4 Shays’ Rebellion (1786) became a concern for
  many national leaders because it
  (1) indicated there would be future conflicts over
      the spread of slavery
  (2) exposed fundamental weaknesses in government under the Articles of Confederation
  (3) pointed to the need for federal government
      regulation of interstate commerce
  (4) showed that frontier settlements were
      vulnerable to raids by Native American Indians
Answer: 2

5 The establishment of the president’s cabinet as
  part of the United States government was the
  result of a
  (1) law passed by Congress
  (2) constitutional amendment
  (3) precedent started by George Washington
  (4) ruling of the United States Supreme Court
Answer: 3

6 Which action is an example of judicial review?
  (1) Congress increased the number of justices on
      the Supreme Court.
  (2) The Supreme Court declared part of the
      Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.
  (3) The Supreme Court heard a case involving a
      United States ambassador.
  (4) The Chief Justice presided over the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.
Answer: 2

7 The right of habeas corpus establishes the
  principle that
  (1) people accused of a crime have a right to a
  (2) all punishments for crimes should be
  (3) a person should not be forced to be a witness
      against himself
  (4) no person should be held in custody unless
      charged with a crime
Answer: 4

8 Alexander Hamilton’s proposal to create a
  national bank and Thomas Jefferson’s proposal to
  purchase the Louisiana Territory were criticized
  because both actions would
  (1) place too much power in the hands of
  (2) violate protections in the Bill of Rights
  (3) increase foreign influence in the United States
  (4) require a loose interpretation of the
Answer: 4

9 The main purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
  (1823) was to
  (1) stake a claim to Mexican territory
  (2) limit European influence in the Americas
  (3) force the British out of the Oregon Territory
  (4) establish full control over Canada
Answer: 2

10 Which Supreme Court decision is most closely
   associated with the Trail of Tears?
   (1) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
   (2) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
   (3) Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
   (4) Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Answer: 3

11 “Missouri Compromise Allows Two New States Into
    the Union”
   “Congress Agrees to Compromise of 1850”
   “Popular Sovereignty Adopted Under KansasNebraska Act”
   Which issue is reflected in these headlines?
   (1) status of slavery in the territories and states
   (2) growth of agriculture on the Great Plains
   (3) clash of federal and state powers
   (4) conflicts with foreign nations over the West
Answer: 1

12 What was a major result of the Civil War?
   (1) The judiciary became the dominant branch of
       the federal government.
   (2) Congress passed an amendment to provide
       for the direct election of senators.
   (3) The power of the central government was
   (4) States were given the right to secede from the
Answer: 3

13 What was a result of the disputed presidential
   election of 1876?
   (1) Reconstruction ended as federal troops were
       removed from the South.
   (2) Slavery was reestablished in the South by
       state legislatures.
   (3) New state laws were passed in the South to
       guarantee equal rights for African Americans.
   (4) A constitutional amendment was adopted to
       correct problems with the electoral college
Answer: 1

14 During the late 180os, the idea of Social
   Darwinism was used to explain the
   (1) development of the Granger movement
   (2) need for settlement homes
   (3) creation of a national parks system
   (4) success or failure of businesses
Answer: 4

    Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the
poster below and on your knowledge of social studies.
15 How was this land offer different from the land
   offer in the Homestead Act (1862)?
   (1) Purchasers had to be citizens.
   (2) People had to pay for this land.
   (3) Buyers needed farming experience.
   (4) This land was on the Atlantic Coast.
Answer: 2

16 The federal government supported the land offer
   made in this advertisement by
   (1) encouraging exploration for gold and silver
   (2) creating a sharecropping system after the
       Civil War
   (3) protecting the hunting grounds of Native
       American Indians
   (4) giving public land to railroad companies to
       help finance railroad construction
Answer: 4

17 The Supreme Court decision in the case of
   Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) affected civil rights in
   the United States by
   (1) ruling that segregated public schools were
   (2) rejecting the legal basis of Jim Crow laws
   (3) approving racial segregation in public
   (4) strengthening the protections of the 14th
Answer: 3

18 One reason the American Federation of Labor
   (AFL) was successful was that this organization
   (1) focused on the needs of skilled workers
   (2) rejected the use of strikes and boycotts
   (3) ended the use of blacklists by employers
   (4) called for government ownership of industry
Answer: 1

19 Which statement best expresses a common belief
   among nativists in the late 180os and early 190os?
   (1) “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled
   (2) “The streets are paved with gold.”
   (3) “All immigrants strengthen America.”
   (4) “America is for Americans.”
Answer: 4

20 In the 189os, the main goal of those who
   supported United States imperialism was to
   (1) bring self-government to areas under United
       States control
   (2) obtain overseas markets and naval bases
   (3) defend against attacks by enemy nations
   (4) spread democracy to Africa and Latin
Answer: 2

21 Which argument was used by Progressive Era
   reformers to support the use of a graduated
   income tax?
   (1) Imports should be taxed to make foreign
       goods more expensive than domestic goods.
   (2) Taxes on corporations should be reduced so
       jobs can be created.
   (3) People who earn more money should pay
       taxes at higher rates.
   (4) All citizens should be taxed at the same rate
       to treat all people equally.
Answer: 3

22 The formation of the National Association for the
   Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and
   the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was
   primarily a response to
   (1) racism and prejudice
   (2) nationalism and patriotism
   (3) abolition and temperance
   (4) militarism and colonialism
Answer: 1

    Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
   We intend to begin on the first of February
   unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall
   endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States
   of America neutral. In the event of this not
   succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of
   alliance on the following basis: make war
   together, make peace together, generous financial
   support and an understanding on our part that
   Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas,
   New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in
   detail is left to you.…
                        — Telegram of January 19, 1917
23 This telegram was part of an effort to
   (1) form an alliance between Germany and the
       United States
   (2) convince several western states to secede
       from the United States
   (3) bring Mexico into World War I on the side of
       Great Britain and France
   (4) enlist Mexican support for Germany if the
       United States declared war
Answer: 4

24 Publication of this telegram in United States
   newspapers helped to
   (1) reelect Woodrow Wilson as president
   (2) convince the American public to support
       entrance into World War I
   (3) encourage Congress to pass neutrality
   (4) grant statehood to Arizona and New Mexico
Answer: 2

25 Henry Cabot Lodge and other senators opposed
   ratification of the Treaty of Versailles (1919)
   because they believed the treaty
   (1) failed to punish Germany for its involvement
        in World War I
   (2) excluded reparations for European allies
   (3) could draw the United States into future
   (4) placed blame for World War I on all the
        warring countries
Answer: 3

26 What was the primary reason many African
   Americans migrated to the North both during
   and after World War I?
   (1) More economic opportunities existed in the
   (2) Few chances to gain political office were
       available in the South.
   (3) Racism and discrimination had been
       eliminated in the North.
   (4) Southern cities were overcrowded.
Answer: 1

27 The Harlem Renaissance of the 192os most
   enhanced American culture by
   (1) pressuring southern states to extend voting
   (2) expanding African American access to
   (3) popularizing African American contributions
       to the arts
   (4) convincing the Supreme Court to allow
       affirmative action
Answer: 3

28 The repeal of national Prohibition in 1933
   showed that
   (1) alcohol consumption was not socially
   (2) the government should lower the drinking
   (3) crime rates had fallen to record low levels
   (4) unpopular laws are difficult to enforce
Answer: 4

    Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
29 During the 193os, the conditions shown in this
   photograph occurred mainly
   (1) on the Atlantic Coast
   (2) on the Great Plains
   (3) in the Rocky Mountains
   (4) in the Pacific Northwest
Answer: 2

30 Many farmers in the region affected by the
   conditions shown in this photograph reacted by
   (1) migrating to California
   (2) accepting aid from the Tennessee Valley
   (3) investing in better farm equipment
   (4) marching on Washington, D.C.
Answer: 1

31 The Fair Labor Standards Act, passed in 1938,
   helped American workers by
   (1) banning the closed shop
   (2) creating universal health insurance
   (3) establishing a federal minimum wage
   (4) ending the outsourcing of American jobs
Answer: 3

    Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social
32 What is the main idea of this 1939 political
   (1) Great Britain and France do not want the
       United States to enter World War II.
   (2) The United States should remain isolated
       from the war in Europe to preserve
   (3) The survival of democracy requires that the
       United States enter the war.
   (4) The United States believes there is no real
       threat to democracy.
Answer: 2

33 Which action is most consistent with the
   viewpoint expressed by this cartoonist?
   (1) passing the Neutrality Acts
   (2) negotiating the Destroyers for Naval Bases
   (3) joining the League of Nations
   (4) signing the Atlantic Charter
Answer: 1

34 Consumer rationing was used during World War II
   as a way to
   (1) increase exploration for natural resources
   (2) limit supplies of weapons to American allies
   (3) draft men into the armed forces
   (4) ensure that the military had essential
Answer: 4

35 The principal goal of the United Nations has
   been to
   (1) develop military alliances around the world
   (2) encourage expansion of international trade
   (3) promote peaceful solutions to world problems
   (4) regulate the use of atomic energy
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 36 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … I do not believe that the American people and
   the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal
   of the Greek Government.…
        As a result of these tragic conditions, a
   militant minority, exploiting human want and
   misery, was able to create political chaos which,
   until now, has made economic recovery
        Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable
   to cope with the situation. The Greek Army is
   small and poorly equipped. It needs supplies and
   equipment if it is to restore the authority of the
   Government throughout Greek territory.
        Greece must have assistance if it is to become a
   self-supporting and self-respecting democracy.…
         — President Harry Truman, Address to Congress,
                                        March 12, 1947
36 Congress responded to the situation described in
   this passage by
   (1) sending combat troops to the Mediterranean
   (2) calling for creation of the North Atlantic
       Treaty Organization
   (3) sending military and economic aid to Greece
       and Turkey
   (4) supplying troops to a peacekeeping operation
Answer: 3

37 “… And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what
   your country can do for you—ask what you can do
   for your country.…”
         — President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address,
                                        January 20, 1961
   Which action by President John F. Kennedy was
   most consistent with the challenge included in
   this statement?
   (1) forming the Peace Corps
   (2) negotiating the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
   (3) supporting the Bay of Pigs invasion
   (4) visiting the Berlin Wall
Answer: 1

    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
   … You express a great deal of anxiety over our
   willingness to break laws. This is certainly a
   legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge
   people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of
   1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools,
   at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for
   us consciously to break laws. One may want to
   ask: “How can you advocate breaking some laws
   and obeying others?” The answer lies in the fact
   that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I
   would be the first to advocate obeying just laws.
   One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility
   to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral
   responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would
   agree with St. Augustine that “an unjust law is no
   law at all.”…
                               — Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,
              “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” April 16, 1963
38 Which type of action against unjust laws is Dr.
   Martin Luther King Jr. supporting in this
   (1) militant resistance (3) judicial activism
   (2) civil disobedience  (4) affirmative action
Answer: 2

39 Which statement most accurately summarizes the
   main idea of the passage?
   (1) People must obey Supreme Court decisions.
   (2) You can never break some laws while obeying
   (3) Violence brings faster results than peaceful
   (4) Following moral principles is sometimes
       more important than following the law.
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 40 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
40 What is the principal message of this cartoon?
   (1) The United States is afraid of a united
   (2) Other nations in Southeast Asia might fall to
   (3) President Lyndon B. Johnson is finding it
       difficult to exit Vietnam.
   (4) President Lyndon B. Johnson is worried about
       a communist attack on the United States.
Answer: 3

41 A main goal of President Richard Nixon’s policy
   of détente was to
   (1) sponsor free elections in North and South
   (2) reduce tensions between the United States
       and the Soviet Union
   (3) negotiate an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict
   (4) build support for recognition of the
       Nationalist government of Taiwan
Answer: 2

42 President Ronald Reagan asked Congress to
   lower tax rates on businesses and wealthy
   individuals in order to
   (1) encourage new economic investment
   (2) increase exports to Asia
   (3) impose limits on the money supply
   (4) preserve funds for social welfare programs
Answer: 1

    Base your answers to questions 43 and 44 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
        … Keeping America competitive requires
   affordable energy. And here we have a serious
   problem: America is addicted to oil, which is
   often imported from unstable parts of the world.
   The best way to break this addiction is through
   technology. Since 2001, we have spent nearly $10
   billion to develop cleaner, cheaper, and more
   reliable alternative energy sources. And we are on
   the threshold of incredible advances.…
                            — President George W. Bush,
            State of the Union Address, January 31, 2006
43 In this passage, President George W. Bush
   suggests Americans can overcome oil “addiction”
   by focusing on
   (1) conservation
   (2) education
   (3) scientific research
   (4) discovery of new oil fields
Answer: 3

44 Which goal related to United States energy needs
   is addressed in this speech?
   (1) reduce dependence on the Middle East
   (2) supply all energy needs from domestic
   (3) decrease offshore drilling
   (4) eliminate the use of all petroleum products
Answer: 1

45 One reason some people support raising the
   eligibility age for receiving Social Security
   benefits is that
   (1) most Americans now have access to free
       health care
   (2) people are living longer today
   (3) the federal government has had record
       budget surpluses in recent years
   (4) baby boomers will begin to retire after the
       year 2030
Answer: 2

46 “House Chooses Jefferson”
   “Corrupt Bargain? Clay Sides with Adams”
   “Bush Wins Florida—Wins Election”
   Which is the most accurate conclusion that can
   be drawn from these headlines?
   (1) Candidates who make promises they cannot
       keep are seldom elected.
   (2) Congress has had no role in deciding close
       elections in United States history.
   (3) Democratic candidates have won most
       disputed elections in the last 100 years.
   (4) Several controversial elections have occurred
       in United States history.
Answer: 4

47 Leaders of the Progressive movement, the New
   Deal, and the Great Society shared the common
   belief that the United States government should
   (1) increase its involvement in the economy to
       improve people’s lives
   (2) strengthen the reserved powers of the states
   (3) provide for racial equality for all people
   (4) support laissez-faire business practices
Answer: 1

48 The practice of yellow journalism most directly
   influenced the
   (1) purchase of Alaska
   (2) acquisition of the Mexican Cession
   (3) start of the Spanish-American War
   (4) end of the Russo-Japanese War
Answer: 3

49 “President Lincoln Declares Martial Law”
   “President Roosevelt Issues Executive Order to
    Detain Japanese Americans”
   “President Bush Orders Terrorist Suspects Held at
   These headlines best demonstrate that
   (1) the system of checks and balances equalizes
       the powers of governmental branches
   (2) presidential power often increases during
       times of crisis
   (3) presidents act forcefully during periods of
       economic depression
   (4) presidential decisions made to resolve
       national crises are rarely controversial
Answer: 2

50 Which of these events related to space
   exploration occurred first?
   (1) Neil Armstrong walking on the Moon
   (2) development of the space shuttle
   (3) John Glenn orbiting Earth
   (4) launching of Sputnik
Answer: 4

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Geography — Development of the United States
                 Many important events in United States history have been influenced by
                 geography. Geographic factors or conditions include location, size, climate,
                 natural resources, and physical features. These events in turn have had political,
                 social, and economic impacts on the development of the United States.
                 Identify two important events in United States history and for each
                 • Describe how a geographic factor or condition influenced the event
                 • Discuss the political, social, and/or economic impacts of this event on the
                   development of the United States
            You may use any important event that was influenced by geographic factors or conditions.
        Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the Louisiana Purchase, the
        construction of the Erie Canal, migration to California in the late 184os, the Civil War, the
        purchase of Alaska, the building of the transcontinental railroad, the acquisition of the
        Philippines, the building of the Panama Canal, the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority
        (TVA), and the construction of the interstate highway system.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              The United States was established as a democratic republic. However, democracy
              was limited by various factors and was not equally available to all groups. For more
              than 200 years, attempts have been made to expand democracy and to increase
              citizen participation in government.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                • Discuss the expansion of democracy in United States history
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Document 1b
       … The possibility of labor’s emergence as a political force, a possibility that appeared to be a
       probability in the early Jacksonian period, was due in large part to the nation’s steady advance
       toward universal manhood suffrage. Whether universal suffrage came as a result of the political
       idealism bred by the Revolution, or the conviction of Jefferson and the Jeffersonian Republicans
       that government should be based on wide popular support, or the relative decline of freeholders
       [property owners], or the influence of the frontier, or the more practical consideration that a
       politician’s advocacy of wider suffrage was bound to ensure him the support of those
       enfranchised as the result of his efforts, the fact was that suffrage qualifications had been steadily
       lowering since the founding of the Republic.…
           The lowering of suffrage qualifications did not mean that pure democracy had triumphed.
       The ballot was still an open one, and any watcher at the polls could tell how votes were being
       cast. Negroes [African Americans] and women were still considered unfit for the franchise. But
       by Jackson’s time most adult white males in the United States had the right to vote on election
       day. So shrewd an observer as Alexis de Tocqueville, writing in the eighteen-thirties, declared
       that “the principle of the sovereignty of the people has acquired in the United States all the
       practical development that the imagination can conceive.”…
            Source: Glyndon G. Van Deusen, The Jacksonian Era: 1828–1848, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1959 (adapted)
1a Based on these documents, what are two factors that contributed to the expansion of democracy prior to the
   Civil War? [2]
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a

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b Based on these documents, what is one way in which democracy was still restricted? [1]
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Document 2
     …Until the Jacksonian movement the common people seemed to have been content to have the
     upper classes rule. But by 1828 the psychology of the plain people toward their government had
     changed, and they wished for direct participation in the government and for the elevation of a
     man of their choice into the presidency. In that year the common men came to the polls,
     demagogic [emotional] oratory flourished, party slogans, party workers and organizers who had
     an eye on the plums of office got out the vote. The campaign was personalized. This new type
     of democracy, composed of the farmers of the West, the yeomen [landowning farmers] and small
     planters of the South, and the labor vote of the North, was violently partisan and had little
     interest in the protection of intellectual liberty or the rights of minorities, which had ennobled
     [elevated] the brand of democracy that Jefferson had advocated. It was a rough and tumble
     movement that resulted in the elevation of pushing, mediocre men to office. Their leader
     Andrew Jackson, had a personality that was autocratic instead of being truly democratic, and he
     lacked an interest in fundamental social reforms.…
                                Source: Clement Eaton, A History of the Old South, The Macmillan Company, 1966
2a According to Clement Eaton, who became involved in the democratic process during the
   Jacksonian Era? [1]
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b According to Clement Eaton, what is one way campaigns changed starting in 1828? [1]
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Document 3
      … Blacks [African Americans] bent on remaining in America would naturally seek the right to
      vote and, equally as a matter of course, would base their claim in part on the Declaration. In a
      rally in support of the Liberty Party in 1840, Albany [New York] blacks contended that denying
      them equal franchise with whites contravened [contradicted] the principles of the Declaration
      of Independence. Later that year, also in Albany, a state convention of black spokesmen issued
      a formal statement which in three instances referred to the Declaration, including its assertion
      that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. Twenty years later,
      in a tract issued for state-wide distribution, “The New York City and County Suffrage Committee
      of Colored Citizens,” invoked the Declaration in its plea to the electorate to eliminate the
      property requirement for voting imposed only on blacks.…
              Source: Benjamin Quarles, “Antebellum Free Blacks and the ‘Spirit of '76’,” The Journal of Negro History,
                                                                                                   July 1976 (adapted)
3 According to Benjamin Quarles, what argument did free African Americans in New York use in justifying
  their right to vote? [1]
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Document 4
  This letter by abolitionist Wendell Phillips to James Redpath was published in Boston in 1865.
4 Why did Wendell Phillips think every African American should learn to read and write? [1]
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Document 5a
5a According to this cartoonist, what was one way the people’s control of government in the United States was
   limited? [1]
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Document 5b
      … Popular [democratic] government in America has been thwarted and progressive legislation
      strangled by the special interests, which control caucuses, delegates, conventions, and party
      organizations; and, through this control of the machinery of government, dictate nominations
      and platforms, elect administrations, legislatures, representatives in Congress, United States
      Senators, and control cabinet officers.…
          The Progressive Republican League believes that popular government is fundamental to all
      other questions. To this end it advocates:
          (1) The election of United State Senators by direct vote of the people.
          (2) Direct primaries for the nomination of elective officials.
          (3) The direct election of delegates to national conventions with opportunity for the voter to
              express his choice for President and Vice-President.
          (4) Amendment to state constitutions providing for the Initiative, Referendum and Recall.…
                   Source: Declaration of Principles of the National Progressive Republican League, January 21, 1911,
                            in Henry Steele Commager, ed., Documents of American History, Appleton-Century-Crofts
5b What were two proposals made by the Progressive Republican League that would expand the people’s
   control of government? [2]
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Document 6
6 Based on this map, what is one trend that can be identified about woman’s suffrage prior to 1920? [1]
(Note: Wyoming and Utah became states in 1890 and 1896, respectively. Their territorial legislatures
                     had previously approved equal suffrage for women.)
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Document 7
   This is an excerpt from an address by President Lyndon B. Johnson to a joint session of Congress shortly
before submitting the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
       Our fathers believed that if this noble view of the rights of man was to flourish, it must be rooted
       in democracy. The most basic right of all was the right to choose your own leaders. The history
       of this country, in large measure, is the history of the expansion of that right to all of our people.
       Many of the issues of civil rights are very complex and most difficult. But about this there can
       and should be no argument. Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. There is
       no reason which can excuse the denial of that right. There is no duty which weighs more heavily
       on us than the duty we have to ensure that right.
       Yet the harsh fact is that in many places in this country men and women are kept from voting
       simply because they are Negroes [African Americans].…
       This bill will strike down restrictions to voting in all elections—Federal, State, and local—which
       have been used to deny Negroes the right to vote.…
       To those who seek to avoid action by their National Government in their own communities; who
       want to and who seek to maintain purely local control over elections, the answer is simple:
       Open your polling places to all your people.
       Allow men and women to register and vote whatever the color of their skin.
       Extend the rights of citizenship to every citizen of this land.…
        Source: President Lyndon B. Johnson, Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise, March 15, 1965
 7 According to President Lyndon B. Johnson, why was the Voting Rights Act necessary in the United States? [1]
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Document 8
      Tonight Ohio’s Legislature ratified the 26th Amendment to the Constitution. This Amendment
      guarantees the right of 18-year-old persons to vote in State and local, as well as Federal,
      elections. It appears that 38 States have now ratified the Amendment that will now become a
      part of the law of the land.
      Some 11 million young men and women who have participated in the life of our Nation through
      their work, their studies, and their sacrifices for its defense, are now to be fully included in the
      electoral process of our country. For more than 20 years, I have advocated the 18-year-old vote.
      I heartily congratulate our young citizens on having gained this right.
      The ratification of this Amendment has been accomplished in the shortest time of any
      amendment in American history. This fact affirms our Nation’s confidence in its youth and its
      trust in their responsibility. It also reinforces our young people’s dedication to a system of
      government whose Constitution permits ordered change.
      I urge them to honor this right by exercising it—by registering and voting in each election.
         Source: President Richard Nixon, Statement About the Ratification of the 26th Amendment to the Constitution,
                                                                                            June 30, 1971 (adapted)
8 According to President Richard Nixon, what is one way that ratification of the 26th amendment expanded
  democracy in the United States? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                The United States was established as a democratic republic. However, democracy
                was limited by various factors and was not equally available to all groups. For more
                than 200 years, attempts have been made to expand democracy and to increase
                citizen participation in government.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  • Discuss the expansion of democracy in United States history
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2011 Exam

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