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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2012 Exam

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   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
1.
1 The original settlements in the thirteen British
  colonies were all located
  (1) east of the Appalachian Mountains
  (2) along the Gulf Coast
  (3) on the Great Plains
  (4) west of the Mississippi River
Answer: 1

2.
    Base your answer to question 2 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
2 Which generalization can best be supported by the
  information in this chart?
  (1) Migration to urban areas slowed by 1920.
  (2) By 1900, a majority of Americans worked in
      factories.
  (3) Between 1800 and 1900, the United States
      population was primarily rural.
  (4) From 1800 to 1920, the percentage of farm
      workers in the labor force steadily increased.
Answer: 3

3.
3 What was a main reason large plantations
  developed in the South during the colonial period?
  (1) British laws discouraged tenant farming.
  (2) Cotton could only be grown in wetlands.
  (3) Southern mountains led to the development
      of isolated, self-sufficient farms.
  (4) The coastal plain in the South contained large
      areas of fertile soil.
Answer: 4


4.
4 Which statement about the British colonial policy
  of mercantilism is most accurate?
  (1) Raw materials from the colonies were
      shipped to England.
  (2) England encouraged the colonies to seek
      independence.
  (3) The colonies were required to send
      manufactured goods to Europe.
  (4) The British opposed the use of slave labor in
      the colonies.
Answer: 1

5.
5 In colonial America, the House of Burgesses, the
  Mayflower Compact, and town hall meetings
  were all developments that led to the
  (1) regulation of trade with Native American
      Indians
  (2) protection of the rights of women
  (3) elimination of the power of the upper classes
  (4) creation of representative government
Answer: 4

6.
6 During the early 177os, how did the British
  government respond to increasing American
  protests of British colonial policy?
  (1) It offered self-government to the colonists.
  (2) It increased efforts to maintain order and
      enforce laws.
  (3) It agreed to grant the colonies representation
      in Parliament.
  (4) It asked France for help in controlling the
      colonists.
Answer: 2

7.
7 Which constitutional principle best protects the
  public from abuse by one branch of government?
  (1) equality
  (2) federalism
  (3) executive privilege
  (4) checks and balances
Answer: 4

8.
8 • A bicameral legislature is created in which
    states have equal representation in the Senate,
    but representation in the House depends on
    population.
  • An enslaved person is counted as three-fifths of
    one person for purposes of both representation
    and taxation.
  These two statements describe
  (1) grievances included in the Declaration of
      Independence
  (2) provisions found in the Articles of Confederation
  (3) compromises reached at the Constitutional
      Convention
  (4) amendments included in the Bill of Rights
Answer: 3

9.
    Base your answer to question 9 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Europe has a set of primary interests which to
   us have none or a very remote relation. Hence
   she must be engaged in frequent controversies,
   the causes of which are essentially foreign to our
   concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in
   us to implicate [connect] ourselves by artificial
   ties in the ordinary vicissitudes [changes] of her
   politics or the ordinary combinations and
   collisions of her friendships or enmities
   [antagonisms].…
   — President George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
 9 According to the passage, President Washington
   believed that the United States should
   (1) seek financial aid from European nations
   (2) end all existing European friendships
   (3) avoid involvement in the political disputes of
       Europe
   (4) discontinue commercial relations with
       Europe
Answer: 3

10.
10 Many critics of the electoral college system point
   out that it
   (1) penalizes the states with the smallest
       population
   (2) encourages the formation of minor political
       parties
   (3) grants too much influence to the United
       States Senate
   (4) might not select the candidate with the
       largest number of popular votes
Answer: 4

11.
11 The establishment of judicial review in Marbury
   v. Madison (1803) gave federal courts the
   authority to
   (1) decide whether a law is constitutional
   (2) create lower courts
   (3) approve foreign treaties
   (4) appoint judges to lifetime terms
Answer: 1

12.
12 A major reason for purchasing the Louisiana
   Territory (1803) was to
   (1) gain access to the Ohio Territory
   (2) remove the British from the borders of the
       United States
   (3) secure control of the port of New Orleans
   (4) open the Rocky Mountains to miners
Answer: 3

13.
13 In the 184os, President James K. Polk’s belief in
   Manifest Destiny led to
   (1) a war with Mexico
   (2) an alliance with several South American
       nations
   (3) the establishment of new colonies in the
       Caribbean
   (4) a ban on the activities of northern abolitionists
Answer: 1

14.
14 The principle of popular sovereignty was an
   important part of the
   (1) Indian Removal Act (3) Homestead Act
   (2) Kansas-Nebraska Act (4) Dawes Act
Answer: 2

15.
    Base your answer to question 15 on the table
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
15 Which inference is most clearly supported by the
   information in this table?
   (1) Slavery decreased throughout the South with
       the end of the African slave trade.
   (2) The enslaved population began to decline
       after 1840.
   (3) The transcontinental railroad spread slavery
       outside the South.
   (4) Slavery would likely have continued to grow
       had there not been a civil war.
Answer: 4

16.
16 A primary reason for the passage of the 14th
   amendment in 1868 was to
   (1) prohibit the secession of states
   (2) uphold the legality of the Black Codes
   (3) continue the presidential plan for Reconstruction
   (4) guarantee citizenship rights to the newly
       freed slaves
Answer: 4

17.
17 After the Civil War, white Southern landowners
   used sharecropping to
   (1) set up schools to educate formerly enslaved
       persons
   (2) encourage freedmen to migrate north
   (3) maintain a cheap labor supply
   (4) sell their plantations to formerly enslaved
       persons
Answer: 3

18.
    Base your answers to questions 18 and 19 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: Until the 188os, most immigrants came
           from the same European countries
           where colonial immigrants originated.
Speaker B: “New” immigrants of the late 180os often
            experienced discrimination.
Speaker C: The use of a quota system is the best way
           to address the issues of immigration.
Speaker D: Today’s immigrants take too many jobs
           away from those who were born in
           America.
18 Which two speakers are expressing an opinion
   related to United States immigration?
   (1) A and B                (3) B and D
   (2) A and C                (4) C and D
Answer: 4

19.
19 The “new” immigrants referred to by Speaker B
   came mainly from
   (1) western and northern Europe
   (2) southern and eastern Europe
   (3) Africa and Asia
   (4) Central America and South America
Answer: 2

20.
20 The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v.
   Ferguson (1896) affected African Americans by
   (1) granting voting rights
   (2) expanding civil rights
   (3) upholding racial segregation
   (4) guaranteeing equal wages
Answer: 3


21.
21 The explosion of the USS Maine and the practice
   of yellow journalism played a significant role in the
   (1) public’s support for the Spanish-American War
   (2) creation of the Open Door policy
   (3) acquisition of Florida
   (4) purchase of Alaska
Answer: 1

22.
22 President Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation
   efforts were influenced by a desire to
   (1) protect natural resources for the future
   (2) increase revenues through land sales
   (3) reduce the role of the federal government
   (4) return tribal lands to Native American Indians
Answer: 1

23.
Base your answer to question 23 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
23 Information in the cartoon most clearly supports the conclusion that by 1914
   (1) states along the East Coast had granted full voting rights to women
   (2) women could vote only in state elections
   (3) most states had approved at least some voting rights for women
   (4) complete national suffrage for women had been achieved
Answer: 3

24.
24 The actions of muckrakers in the late 19th
   century and early 2oth century resulted in
   (1) Supreme Court decisions that expanded the
       right to vote
   (2) government regulation of unfair business
       practices
   (3) increases in the power of monopolies
   (4) reduction of the president’s power to manage
       the economy
Answer: 2

25.
25 The United States Senate refused to ratify the
   Treaty of Versailles after World War I because
   many senators believed
   (1) President Woodrow Wilson was too ill to sign
       the treaty
   (2) most Americans had sympathized with
       Germany during the war
   (3) the treaty would not require reparations from
       Germany
   (4) the League of Nations could draw the United
       States into future wars
Answer: 4

26.
26 What was one feature of the United States
   economy during the 192os that contributed to the
   Great Depression?
   (1) increase in federal regulation
   (2) expansion of easy credit
   (3) growth of the trade deficit
   (4) influence of foreign corporations
Answer: 2

27.
27 Duke Ellington, Langston Hughes, and Bessie
   Smith are most closely associated with efforts to
   (1) expand the Back to Africa movement
   (2) fight discrimination through the judicial
       system
   (3) promote the cultural identity of African
       Americans through the arts
   (4) establish the National Association for the
       Advancement of Colored People
Answer: 3

28.
    Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
28 In which geographic region of the nation was this
   1935 photograph taken?
   (1) New England          (3) Pacific Northwest
   (2) Southeast            (4) Great Plains
Answer: 4

29.
29 The conditions shown in the photograph were
   mainly the result of
   (1) government subsidies to increase crop
       production
   (2) migrations from farms to cities
   (3) poor farming methods and sustained drought
   (4) reduced tariffs on farm machinery and crops
Answer: 3

30.
30 Which factor contributed most to the repeal of
   national Prohibition in 1933?
   (1) the inability of government to enforce the law
   (2) an improvement in the economy
   (3) a decline in organized crime
   (4) the start of World War II
Answer: 1

31.
31 • Banning loans to nations at war
   • Prohibiting the sale of armaments to nations at
     war
   • Limiting travel by United States citizens on
     ships of belligerent nations
   These governmental actions of the 193os were
   similar in that each was intended to
   (1) support efforts of the Munich Conference
   (2) protect United States colonies from foreign
       aggression
   (3) limit the influence of Japan in Asia
   (4) keep the United States out of international
       conflicts
Answer: 4

32.
    Base your answer to question 32 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 What is the most likely explanation for the
   changes in income shown in the chart?
   (1) World War II veterans benefited from an
       economic boom following the war.
   (2) Conversion to a wartime economy created
       new jobs.
   (3) New laws were passed that permitted child
       labor in wartime.
   (4) Membership in labor unions was prohibited
       during wartime.
Answer: 2

33.
    Base your answer to question 33 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 This World War II poster recognizes the
   (1) return of women to the workforce after the
       war
   (2) contributions of women to wartime defense
   (3) role of women as military officers
   (4) legal equality of women
Answer: 2

34.
34 The major reason for President Harry Truman’s
   decision to use atomic bombs against Japan was
   the
   (1) potential loss of American lives from an
       invasion of Japan
   (2) need to defeat Japan before defeating
       Germany
   (3) plan to bring democratic government to
       Japan after the war
   (4) failure of the island-hopping campaign
       against Japan
Answer: 1

35.
    Base your answer to question 35 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … War criminals and those who have participated
   in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises
   involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes
   shall be arrested and brought to judgment. Nazi
   leaders, influential Nazi supporters and high
   officials of Nazi organizations and institutions and
   any other persons dangerous to the occupation or
   its objectives shall be arrested and interned.…
      — Protocol of the Proceedings, Potsdam Conference,
                                            August 1945
35 This agreement made at the Potsdam
   Conference led directly to the
   (1) creation of the North Atlantic Treaty
       Organization (NATO)
   (2) trials in Nuremberg, Germany
   (3) announcement of the Truman Doctrine
   (4) division of Germany into occupation zones
Answer: 2


36.
36 Which factor directly contributed to the growth
   of suburban communities after World War II?
   (1) Mass transit systems closed.
   (2) Property taxes were eliminated in many
       towns.
   (3) Returning veterans created a demand for
       housing.
   (4) Widespread mortgage foreclosures caused
       farmers to leave rural areas.
Answer: 3

37.
37 Which event marked the beginning of the space
   race with the Soviet Union?
   (1) U-2 spy plane incident
   (2) launch of Sputnik
   (3) Berlin airlift
   (4) creation of the space shuttle program
Answer: 2

38.
   Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the letter to President Dwight D. Eisenhower below and on
your knowledge of social studies.
                                                                      May 13, 1958
         The President
         The White House
         Washington, D. C.
         My dear Mr. President:
         I was sitting in the audience at the Summit Meeting of Negro [African-American] Leaders
         yesterday when you said we must have patience. On hearing you say this, I felt like
         standing up and saying, “Oh no! Not again.” …
         17 million Negroes cannot do as you suggest and wait for the hearts of men to change. We
         want to enjoy now the rights that we feel we are entitled to as Americans. This we cannot
         do unless we pursue aggressively goals which all other Americans achieved over 150 years
         ago.
         As the chief executive of our nation, I respectfully suggest that you unwittingly crush the
         spirit of freedom in Negroes by constantly urging forbearance [delay] and give hope to those
         pro-segregation leaders like Governor [Orval] Faubus who would take from us even those
         freedoms we now enjoy. Your own experience with Governor Faubus is proof enough that
         forbearance and not eventual integration is the goal the pro-segregation leaders seek.…
                                                                      Respectfully yours,
                                                                      Jackie Robinson
                                                          Source: National Archives & Records Administration
         38 Which action by the federal government would Jackie Robinson most likely have
            supported to achieve his stated goals?
            (1) federal assistance to expand segregated facilities
            (2) creation of additional job training programs
            (3) appointment of a commission to study the causes of urban race riots
            (4) faster implementation of the decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
                (1954)
Answer: 4

39.
39 When Jackie Robinson mentions President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s experience with
   Governor Faubus, he is referring to the action the president took in
   (1) hiring minority workers to build the interstate highway system
   (2) sending federal troops to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas
   (3) supporting the Montgomery bus boycott
   (4) ordering that all military bases located in southern states be integrated
Answer: 2

40.
40 A major goal of the Great Society programs
   begun under President Lyndon B. Johnson was to
   (1) stimulate oil production in the United States
   (2) provide tax concessions to manufacturers
   (3) reduce poverty in the nation
   (4) increase the size of the armed forces
Answer: 3

41.
    Base your answer to question 41 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Just over a month ago, General Secretary
   Gorbachev [of the Soviet Union] and I met for
   the first time in Geneva. Our purpose was to
   begin a fresh chapter in the relations between our
   two countries and to try to reduce the suspicions
   and mistrust between us. I think we made a good
   beginning. Mr. Gorbachev and I spent many
   hours together, speaking frankly and seriously
   about the most important issues of our time:
   reducing the massive nuclear arsenals on both
   sides, resolving regional conflicts, ensuring
   respect for human rights as guaranteed under
   international agreements, and other questions of
   mutual interest. As the elected representative of
   the American people, I told Mr. Gorbachev of
   our deep desire for peace and that the American
   people do not wish the Soviet people any
   harm.…
             — President Ronald Reagan, January 1, 1986
41 One major issue that dominated United
   States–Soviet relations at this time was the
   (1) war in Southeast Asia
   (2) use of apartheid in South Africa
   (3) danger of nuclear destruction
   (4) threat from al Qaeda in the Middle East
Answer: 3

42.
42 Passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act
   (1990) improved conditions for the disabled by
   (1) making it illegal to criticize or fire
       handicapped persons
   (2) mandating easier access to employment and
       public facilities
   (3) sponsoring Olympic games for the
       handicapped
   (4) requiring separate classrooms for disabled
       students
Answer: 2

43.
    Base your answer to question 43 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … After 20 months of negotiations, I ordered my
   Trade Representative, Ambassador Kantor, to
   impose sanctions on Japan unless they agreed to
   open these markets. Today Japan has agreed that
   it will begin to truly open its auto and auto parts
   markets to American companies.…
                 — President Bill Clinton, Remarks on the
                  Japan–United States Trade Agreement,
                                            June 28, 1995
43 President Clinton’s actions were a reaction to
   (1) an ongoing trade deficit with Japan
   (2) a threat of war with Japan
   (3) the refusal of Japan to import Alaskan oil
   (4) tension over having to protect Japan from
       Chinese aggression
Answer: 1

44.
44 Which development led to the other three?
   (1) United States invasion of Afghanistan
   (2) increased security at airports
   (3) creation of the Department of Homeland
       Security
   (4) September 11, 2001 attacks on the United
       States
Answer: 4

45.
45 • Battle of Saratoga (1777)
   • Battle of Gettysburg (1863)
   • Battle of Midway (1942)
   One way in which these battles are similar is that
   in each battle
   (1) American forces suffered serious defeats
   (2) large numbers of civilian casualties led to
       renewed peace efforts
   (3) a United States victory was a turning point in
       the war
   (4) the general in command later became
       president
Answer: 3

46.
Base your answers to questions 46 and 47 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
46 Which United States foreign policy is the subject of this 1904 cartoon?
   (1) imperialism                           (3) isolationism
   (2) neutrality                            (4) containment
Answer: 1

47.
47 The cartoonist is expressing concerns about the ability of the United States to
   (1) accept citizens from foreign countries
   (2) control territories spread out over vast distances
   (3) support human rights around the world
   (4) maintain a trade surplus with new trading partners
Answer: 2

48.
Base your answer to question 48 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
48 What accounts for the changes that took place in the distribution of seats in the
   House of Representatives between 1900 and 2000?
   (1) The population in certain regions grew more quickly than in other regions.
   (2) Supreme Court decisions expanded the power of Congress.
   (3) The Democratic Party majority increased in strength during the 2oth century.
   (4) Constitutional amendments gave large states more representation in the
       Senate than small states.
Answer: 1

49.
49 A valid generalization about presidential
   elections since 1960 is that
   (1) campaign finance laws have reduced
       spending by candidates
   (2) most of the winning candidates have come
       from New England
   (3) more than 90 percent of eligible voters have
       participated in each election
   (4) candidates have used new forms of mass
       media to reach voters
Answer: 4

50.
50 During the Great Depression of the 193os and
   the economic crisis of 2008–2010, the federal
   government initiated reforms in the banking
   system to
   (1) strengthen federal control over the financial
       system
   (2) eliminate the f l ow of capital to foreign
       countries
   (3) promote laissez-faire business practices
   (4) provide for a more equitable distribution of
       wealth
Answer: 1


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Reform Movements (Industrialization)
                 After the Civil War, the United States developed an increasingly industrialized
                 economy. Industrialization provided many benefits for the nation; however, it also
                 created serious problems that required action by the government, groups, or
                 individuals.
        Task:
                 Select two problems that resulted from industrialization in the United States and
                 for each
                 • Explain how this problem resulted from industrialization
                 • Describe an attempt by the government, groups, or individuals to address the
                    problem
                 • Discuss the extent to which this attempt was successful in addressing the
                    problem
            You may use any problem that was created by industrialization from your study of United
        States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include corruption in
        government, exploitation of workers, overcrowding of cities, establishment of trusts,
        production of unsafe consumer goods, destruction of the natural environment, and increase in
        anti-immigrant attitudes.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              At various times in United States history, the federal government has taken
              controversial actions that have limited civil liberties. Three such actions were the
              passage of the Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917–1918), issuing Executive
              Order 9066 relocating Japanese Americans (1942), and the passage of the
              USA Patriot Act (2001).
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               Select two actions taken by the federal government that are mentioned in the
               historical context and for each
               • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the action
               • Discuss an argument used by the government to support its action
               • Discuss an argument used by those who opposed the government’s action
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
   The Espionage Act was passed in 1917. The Sedition Act was passed in 1918.
       … Before the war [World War I], the government had had no power to interfere with free
       speech. During the neutrality years and on into the first months of war, pessimistic rumors,
       criticism of America’s military preparations, and overtly [openly] pro-German propaganda had
       all gone unchecked. Democrats’ moves to introduce press censorship as part of wider
       antiespionage legislation had been blocked by Republicans claiming that censorship could be
       used by the President to screen himself from criticism.
            But with war fever mounting all the time, a modified Espionage Act (subsequently to be
       supplemented with the even more stringent [strict] Sedition Act) became law in June 1917.
       Suddenly, any statement that might interfere with the success of the armed forces, incite
       disloyalty, or obstruct recruiting to the Army became a punishable offense. A crucial weapon had
       been added to the government’s armory. It now had the legal power to control what its citizens
       said in public. And rather than simply trusting newspaper editors to be discreet, it had the power
       to suppress their publications if they spoke out too roughly. In some cases, suppression was
       temporary; for others, it was permanent. Postmaster General Albert Burleson was given the
       power to ban offensive material from circulating through the mail. Under postal regulations, if a
       journal missed one issue, for whatever reason, it automatically lost its second-class mailing
       privilege—and for a great many publications, this spelled financial death.…
                               Source: Harries and Harries, The Last Days of Innocence: America at War 1917–1918,
                                                                                             Random House, 1997
 1 According to Harries and Harries, what were two reasons the Espionage and Sedition Acts were passed? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2
  William H. Rehnquist was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1986 to 2005.
     … Charles T. Schenck was convicted [in 1918] of violating the act [Espionage Act] by printing
     and distributing to draftees leaflets that urged them to resist the draft. Schenck took his case to
     the Supreme Court, arguing that his conviction violated the First Amendment’s guarantee of
     freedom of the press. The Supreme Court, in a unanimous opinion authored by Justice Oliver
     Wendell Holmes, upheld his conviction. It said that “When a nation is at war many things which
     might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its efforts that their utterance will not be
     endured so long as men fight.… No court could regard them as protected by any constitutional
     right.” The Court said that since the leaflet could be found to have been intended to obstruct
     the recruiting for the armed forces, it was not protected by the First Amendment; its words
     created “a clear and present danger” of bringing about conduct that Congress had a right to
     prevent.…
          Source: William H. Rehnquist, All the Laws but One: Civil Liberties in Wartime, Vintage Books, 1998 (adapted)
2 According to William H. Rehnquist, what was one argument used by the United States Supreme Court to
  uphold Charles T. Schenck’s conviction under the Espionage Act? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 3a
      … I think all men recognize that in time of war the citizen must surrender some rights for the
      common good which he is entitled to enjoy in time of peace. But, sir, the right to control their
      own Government according to constitutional forms is not one of the rights that the citizens of
      this country are called upon to surrender in time of war.
      Rather, in time of war, the citizen must be more alert to the preservation of his right to control
      his Government. He must be most watchful of the encroachment [intrusion] of the military upon
      the civil power. He must beware of those precedents in support of arbitrary action by
      administration officials which, excused on the pleas of necessity in war time, become the fixed
      rule when the necessity has passed and normal conditions have been restored.
      More than all, the citizen and his representative in Congress in time of war must maintain his
      right of free speech.…
                                 Source: Senator Robert M. La Follette, “Free Speech in Wartime,” October 6, 1917
3a What is one argument against restricting free speech during wartime, according to Senator Robert M.
   La Follette? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 3b
  The Sedition Act continued to be enforced after World War I.
3b What is the cartoonist’s viewpoint of Uncle Sam’s use of the Sedition legislation? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


57.
Document 4
      … The entire nation was stunned by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, but it seemed much
      closer to home on the west coast than elsewhere on the mainland. In February 1942, oil
      installations in the vicinity of Santa Barbara were shelled by a Japanese submarine. The military
      established a Western Defense Command, which consisted of the coastal portions of California,
      Oregon, and Washington.
          Residents became fearful of ethnic Japanese among them. Japanese immigrants had begun
      to settle on the west coast shortly before the turn of the century but had not been assimilated
      into the rest of the population. Those who had emigrated from Japan were not allowed to
      become citizens; they were prohibited by law from owning land and were socially segregated in
      many ways. The first generation of Japanese immigrants—the Issei—therefore remained aliens.
      But their children—the Nisei—being born in the United States, were citizens from birth. Public
      officials, particularly in California—Governor Culbert Olson, Attorney General Earl Warren,
      and Los Angeles Mayor Fletcher Bowron—began to call for “relocation” of persons of Japanese
      ancestry in the interior of the country. There were more than one hundred thousand of these on
      the west coast if one counted both the Issei and the Nisei.…
                   Source: William H. Rehnquist, All the Laws but One: Civil Liberties in Wartime, Vintage Books, 1998
4 According to William H. Rehnquist, what is one reason public officials in California called for the relocation
  of Japanese Americans? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 5a
   The excerpt below is from Executive Order 9066, which resulted in the relocation of Japanese Americans.
      Executive Order No. 9066
      AUTHORIZING THE SECRETARY OF WAR TO PRESCRIBE MILITARY AREAS
      WHEREAS the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against
      espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and
      national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended
      by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655
      (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104):
                                 Source: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Executive Order 9066, February 19, 1942
5a According to President Roosevelt, what is one reason for the relocation of Japanese Americans? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 5b
      … The policy [relocation and internment of Japanese Americans] stemmed from a myriad of
      motives, including the insecurity of the army’s west coast commander, the racism and hostility of
      the Pacific states’ white population, bureaucratic ambitions, and the political advantages
      perceived by local, state, and federal officials. The affair involved a variety of officials and
      institutions, including high ranking military officers, heads and lower officials of the Department
      of Justice and the War Department, the FBI, the Supreme Court, and the president. Many of
      these officials knew at the time that the Japanese American community harbored very few
      disloyal persons; furthermore, knowledgeable parties in key agencies, such as the FBI and the
      Office of Naval Intelligence, long had been aware of those elements and knew that no military
      necessity existed to justify so Draconian [harsh] a measure.…
               Source: Stanley I. Kutler, “Review: At the Bar of History: Japanese Americans versus the United States,”
                                                                American Bar Foundation Research Journal, Spring 1985
5b According to Stanley Kutler, what was one motive behind the government’s decision to intern Japanese
   Americans? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 6
      MR. JUSTICE JACKSON, dissenting.
      Korematsu was born on our soil, of parents born in Japan. The Constitution makes him a citizen
      of the United States by nativity, and a citizen of California by residence. No claim is made that
      he is not loyal to this country. There is no suggestion that, apart from the matter involved here,
      he is not law-abiding and well disposed. Korematsu, however, has been convicted of an act not
      commonly a crime. It consists merely of being present in the state whereof he is a citizen, near
      the place where he was born, and where all his life he has lived.
      Even more unusual is the series of military orders which made this conduct a crime. They forbid
      such a one to remain, and they also forbid him to leave. They were so drawn that the only way
      Korematsu could avoid violation was to give himself up to the military authority. This meant
      submission to custody, examination, and transportation out of the territory, to be followed by
      indeterminate confinement in detention camps.
      A citizen’s presence in the locality, however, was made a crime only if his parents were of
      Japanese birth. Had Korematsu been one of four — the others being, say, a German alien
      enemy, an Italian alien enemy, and a citizen of American-born ancestors, convicted of treason
      but out on parole — only Korematsu’s presence would have violated the order. The difference
      between their innocence and his crime would result, not from anything he did, said, or thought,
      different than they, but only in that he was born of different racial stock.…
                 Source: Justice Robert Jackson, Dissenting Opinion, Korematsu v. United States, December 18, 1944
6 Based on this dissenting opinion in Korematsu v. United States, state two arguments made by Justice Robert
  Jackson against the conviction of Korematsu. [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 7
      … The attacks in New York and Washington [on September 11, 2001], followed closely by the
      mysterious anthrax mailings and the swift war in Afghanistan, inevitably instigated [prompted]
      changes in law enforcement, intelligence operations, and security generally. As U.S. Supreme
      Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor predicted on September 29, 2001: “We’re likely to
      experience more restrictions on our personal freedom than has ever been the case in our
      country.” The public strongly supported doing whatever was necessary. In fact, one poll showed
      55 percent of citizens were worried that the government would not go far enough in fighting
      terrorism in order to protect civil liberties; only 31 percent were worried the government would
      go too far in fighting terrorism at the expense of civil liberties.…
                     Source: Leone and Anrig, eds., The War on Our Freedoms: Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism,
                                                                                         Century Foundation, 2003
7 According to this document, what was one reason for the passage of the USA Patriot Act? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 8
  This is an excerpt of President George W. Bush’s remarks upon signing the USA Patriot Act.
      … For example, this legislation gives law enforcement officials better tools to put an end to
      financial counterfeiting, smuggling, and money laundering. Secondly, it gives intelligence
      operations and criminal operations the chance to operate not on separate tracks but to share vital
      information so necessary to disrupt a terrorist attack before it occurs.
      As of today, we’re changing the laws governing information-sharing. And as importantly, we’re
      changing the culture of our various agencies that fight terrorism. Countering and investigating
      terrorist activity is the number one priority for both law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
      Surveillance of communications is another essential tool to pursue and stop terrorists. The
      existing law was written in the era of rotary telephones. This new law that I sign today will allow
      surveillance of all communications used by terrorists, including emails, the Internet, and cell
      phones. As of today, we’ll be able to better meet the technological challenges posed by this
      proliferation of communications technology.…
                                                           Source: President George W. Bush, October 26, 2001
8a According to President George W. Bush, what is one way the USA Patriot Act will help law enforcement
   officials? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
b According to President George W. Bush, what is the primary goal of the USA Patriot Act? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Document 9a
Document 9b
      … The war on terrorism may be launching a legal revolution in America. The changes pose these
      questions: How necessary are some of the reforms? Have [Attorney General] John Ashcroft and
      the Justice Department unraveled constitutional protections in trying to ensure our safety?
      “There is a significant civil-liberties price to be paid as we adopt various national-security
      initiatives,” says Mary Jo White, a former U.S. Attorney in the Southern District of New York,
      whose office pursued some of the biggest terrorism cases of the 199os. “For the most part, I
      think that price is necessary. But what I worry about is government officials who find the answers
      too easy in this arena.” …
                     Source: Richard Lacayo et al., “Civil Liberties: The War Comes Back Home,” Time, May 12, 2003
9 Based on these documents, what is one criticism of measures taken to fight the war on terrorism? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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65.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                At various times in United States history, the federal government has taken
                controversial actions that have limited civil liberties. Three such actions were the
                passage of the Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917–1918), issuing Executive
                Order 9066 relocating Japanese Americans (1942), and the passage of the
                USA Patriot Act (2001).
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Select two actions taken by the federal government that are mentioned in the
                  historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the action
                  • Discuss an argument used by the government to support its action
                  • Discuss an argument used by those who opposed the government’s action
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2012 Exam


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