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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2014 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 During the colonial period, which geographic
  feature presented the greatest barrier to the
  westward migration of American settlers?
  (1) Appalachian Mountains
  (2) Ohio River
  (3) Great Plains
  (4) Rocky Mountains
Answer: 1

2 Which action by the British government was
  considered by American colonists to be a violation
  of their rights as Englishmen?
  (1) making treaties with Native American Indians
  (2) protecting the colonies from foreign invasion
  (3) failing to enforce the Navigation Acts
  (4) taxing the colonies without representation in
Answer: 4

3 Which political feature of the United States
  developed during the colonial period?
  (1) two-party system
  (2) federalism
  (3) representative government
  (4) universal suffrage
Answer: 3

4 In his pamphlet Common Sense, Thomas Paine
  urged American colonists to
  (1) establish their own nation
  (2) pay their colonial taxes
  (3) obey the laws of Parliament
  (4) form an alliance with France
Answer: 1

5 What was the main reason the Federalists wanted
  to replace the Articles of Confederation?
  (1) The president did not have the power to veto
  (2) The legislative branch enacted an unfair tax
  (3) The Supreme Court refused to pay
      Revolutionary War debts.
  (4) The national government was too weak to
      solve the nation’s problems.
Answer: 4

6 Antifederalists opposed ratification of the United
  States Constitution until they were assured that
  (1) a bill of rights would be added to the original
  (2) their supporters would receive a fair share of
      federal government jobs
  (3) the president would be given increased powers
  (4) senators would be elected directly by the
Answer: 1

7 What is the most democratic feature of the original
  Constitution of the United States?
  (1) role given to the electoral college in presidential
  (2) appointment of ambassadors by the president
  (3) direct election of the members of the House
      of Representatives
  (4) lifetime appointments for Supreme Court
Answer: 3

8 One immediate result of Alexander Hamilton’s
  financial plan was the
  (1) removal of the tax on exports
  (2) creation of a national bank
  (3) adoption of free trade
  (4) establishment of an income tax
Answer: 2

9 The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison
  (1803) strengthened the power of the judicial
  branch by
  (1) denying states the right to secede from the
  (2) providing the president the power to declare
  (3) ruling that Congress has the right to create
      new territories
  (4) granting federal courts the power to declare
      laws unconstitutional
Answer: 4

10 Which action of President Thomas Jefferson was
   in conflict with his belief in a strict interpretation
   of the Constitution?
   (1) protesting the impressment of United States
   (2) purchasing the Louisiana Territory from
   (3) pardoning violators of the Alien and Sedition
   (4) using the United States Navy to subdue the
       Barbary pirates
Answer: 2

11 The decisions of the Supreme Court in McCulloch
   v. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
   are important because they
   (1) clarified constitutional limits on the right to
       bear arms
   (2) denied slaves the right to sue in federal courts
   (3) increased the power of the federal government
       over the states
   (4) upheld funding for the Erie Canal
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 12 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …I have no motive, my friends, to deceive you.
   I am sincerely desirous to promote your welfare.
   Listen to me, therefore, while I tell you that
   you cannot remain where you now are.
   Circumstances that cannot be controlled, and
   which are beyond the reach of human laws,
   render it impossible that you can flourish in the
   midst of a civilized community. You have but one
   remedy within your reach. And that is, to remove
   to the West and join your countrymen, who are
   already established there. And the sooner you do
   this the sooner you will commence your career of
   improvement and prosperity….
                     — President Andrew Jackson, 1835
12 Which group of people was President Jackson
   (1) African Americans
   (2) Asian Americans
   (3) Mexican Americans
   (4) Native American Indians
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 13 on the graphic
organizer below and on your knowledge of social
13 Which title best completes this graphic organizer?
   (1) Equal Protection Under the Law
   (2) Freedom of Assembly
   (3) States Rights
   (4) Protection of Religious Practice
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 14 on the painting
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
14 What is the subject of this 1872 painting?
   (1) invention of the railroad
   (2) evolution of westward migration
   (3) religious influence of the Puritans
   (4) protection of national parks
Answer: 2

15 After 1877, racial segregation became widespread
   in the South primarily as a result of the
   (1) decline of the Ku Klux Klan
   (2) activities of the Freedmen’s Bureau
   (3) stationing of federal troops in the South
   (4) passage of Jim Crow laws
Answer: 4

16 Which statement best describes an attitude shared
   by John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and
   J. P. Morgan?
   (1) Economic competition is inefficient and
   (2) Strong labor unions are essential to the health
        of the economy.
   (3) Natural resources belong to all citizens and
        should not be used for private gain.
   (4) Concentrating economic power in the hands
        of a few individuals is a threat to the country.
Answer: 1

17 The Granger movement and the formation of the
   Populist Party were similar in that each was an
   effort to
   (1) end the practice of sharecropping
   (2) improve conditions for farmers
   (3) provide housing for urban dwellers
   (4) increase profits for railroad companies
Answer: 2

18 During the late 180os, an open immigration policy
   was most strongly supported by
   (1) abolitionists          (3) conservationists
   (2) yellow journalists     (4) industrialists
Answer: 4

19 Which heading best completes the partial outline
(1)   Principles of the Fourteen Points
(2)   Reasons for United States Imperialism
(3)   Causes of World War I
(4)   Adoption of Isolationist Ideals
Answer: 2

20 The United States established the Open Door
   policy toward China as a way to
   (1) promote democracy in Asia
   (2) secure military bases in East Asia
   (3) protect United States economic interests
   (4) end the Boxer Rebellion
Answer: 3

21 Why did construction of the Panama Canal become
   more important to the United States after the
   Spanish-American War?
   (1) Congress realized that the key threat to
       national security came from South America.
   (2) Great Britain had plans to purchase the canal
       zone and colonize the territory.
   (3) Spain had regained control of its former
       colonies near the canal route.
   (4) The navy needed a faster way to move ships
       between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Answer: 4

22 In 1906, the Pure Food and Drug Act and the
   Meat Inspection Act were passed in an attempt to
   (1) ensure the safety of American consumers
   (2) establish price controls on the cattle industry
   (3) limit the power of Congress
   (4) give big business greater control over the
Answer: 1

23 Primaries, the secret ballot, and the use of
   referendum and recall were efforts made during
   the Progressive Era to
   (1) preserve the power of political machines
   (2) provide equal political rights for Native
       American Indians
   (3) protect States rights against federal power
   (4) increase citizen participation in government
Answer: 4

24 The major argument of opponents of the 1919
   Treaty of Versailles was that the treaty would
   require the United States to
   (1) become involved in future international
   (2) pay for war damages
   (3) adopt a policy of military alliances
   (4) keep troops permanently in Europe
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 25 on the poster below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 The main goal of Americanization schools was to
   (1) enforce segregation                 (3) reinforce stereotypes
   (2) promote assimilation                (4) encourage cultural diversity
Answer: 2

26 One way in which the economic principles of
   Republican presidents Warren G. Harding and
   Calvin Coolidge were similar is that both believed
   that government should
   (1) raise income taxes
   (2) provide relief payments to unemployed workers
   (3) limit its regulation of business activities
   (4) purchase surplus farm products
Answer: 3

27 During the 192os, installment buying, income
   inequality, and stock market speculation
   contributed to the
   (1) introduction of supply-side economics
   (2) return of laissez-faire economic principles
   (3) economic weaknesses that helped bring about
       the Great Depression
   (4) decision to lower tariff rates
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 28 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …The Congress of the United States
   notwithstanding, and the Supreme Court of the
   United States notwithstanding, with all deference
   and respect, I differ with them all, and know that
   I am right and that they are wrong. The
   Constitution of the United States as it is protects
   me. If I could get a practical application of the
   Constitution it would protect me and all women
   in the enjoyment of perfect equality of rights
   everywhere under the shadow of the American
               — Susan B. Anthony, Speech to the Senate
                                   Judiciary Committee,
                                      January 23, 1880
28 The basic problem identified in this speech was
   addressed in 1920 by
   (1) a constitutional amendment granting suffrage
       to women
   (2) an executive order allowing women to serve
       in the military
   (3) a Supreme Court decision granting women
       additional privacy rights
   (4) a law allowing women to petition the
Answer: 1

29 Passage of the Social Security Act (1935) helped
   American workers by
   (1) creating jobs for the unemployed
   (2) guaranteeing a minimum wage
   (3) legalizing the right to join labor unions
   (4) providing financial assistance after retirement
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 30 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
30 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   main idea of the cartoon?
   (1) President Franklin D. Roosevelt should limit
       the powers of Congress.
   (2) Actions by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
       threaten American democracy.
   (3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt is more
       powerful than European dictators.
   (4) The Supreme Court is helping President
       Franklin D. Roosevelt reorganize his
Answer: 2

Base your answer to question 31 on the posters below and on your knowledge of social studies.
31 These posters were trying to convince Americans that winning World War II required
   (1) wage and price freezes              (3) higher levels of taxation and spending
   (2) the sale of additional war bonds    (4) the conservation of scarce resources
Answer: 4

32 The Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States
   (1944) upheld Executive Order 9066, which had
   authorized the
   (1) placement of women in combat roles
   (2) exclusion of Japanese Americans from the
       West Coast
   (3) limiting of freedom of speech during wartime
   (4) adoption of the military draft
Answer: 2

33 The Manhattan Project led by Robert Oppenheimer
   was part of the World War II effort to
   (1) develop the atomic bomb
   (2) supply the Allies with more fighter planes
   (3) ban the use of chemical and biological
   (4) coordinate troop movements between New
       York and Europe
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 34 on the poem
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
              How About It, Dixie
        The President’s Four Freedoms
        Appeal to me.
        I would like to see those Freedoms
        Come to be.
        If you believe
        In the Four Freedoms, too,
        Then share ’em with me—
        Don’t keep ’em all for you….
        Looks like by now
        Folks ought to know
        It’s hard to beat Hitler
        Protecting Jim Crow.
        Freedom’s not just
        To be won Over There.
        It means Freedom at home, too—
        Now—right here!
                               — Langston Hughes, 1942
34 In this poem, what is Langston Hughes’s criticism
   about United States foreign policy during World
   War II?
   (1) The Four Freedoms cannot help African
   (2) Claims of fighting for democracy abroad are
       inconsistent with segregation at home.
   (3) Involvement in World War II is not in the
       best interest of the United States.
   (4) The democratic principles of the United
       States are best kept at home.
Answer: 2

35 The Nuremberg War Crimes trials established
   the international legal precedent that
   (1) the United States will give refugee status to
       all victims of war
   (2) individuals who violate human rights can be
       held responsible for their actions
   (3) invaders must pay to rebuild the areas they
   (4) territory lost in war cannot be regained
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 36 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …Balanced against this are the facts that Russia,
   as opposed to the western world in general, is still
   by far the weaker party, that Soviet policy is
   highly flexible, and that Soviet society may well
   contain deficiencies which will eventually weaken
   its own total potential. This would of itself warrant
   the United States entering with reasonable
   confidence upon a policy of firm containment,
   designed to confront the Russians with unalterable
   counter-force at every point where they show
   signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful
   and stable world….
       — George Kennan, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,”
                               Foreign Affairs, July 1947
36 In this passage, George Kennan is suggesting that
   the United States should
   (1) abandon Western Europe to Soviet control
   (2) launch an attack on the Soviet Union
   (3) pursue policies to limit the spread of Soviet
   (4) admit that the Soviet Union posed no real
       threat to the United States
Answer: 3

37 Which statement about the United Nations is an
   opinion rather than a fact?
   (1) The United Nations is a successful
       peacekeeping organization.
   (2) The United Nations is supported by
       contributions of member nations.
   (3) The United Nations Security Council has 15
   (4) The United Nations administers health
       education programs.
Answer: 1

38 The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl
   Warren (1953–1969) is considered one of the
   most liberal in United States history because it
   (1) worked effectively with lower courts
   (2) gained the overwhelming support of the
       American people
   (3) expanded civil rights and the rights of the
   (4) favored a strict interpretation of the
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 39 on the excerpt
below from a Supreme Court decision and on your
knowledge of social studies.
       “We conclude that, in the field of public
   education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’
   has no place. Separate educational facilities are
   inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the
   plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom
   the actions have been brought are, by reason of
   the segregation complained of, deprived of the
   equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the
   Fourteenth Amendment….”
39 This Supreme Court decision is based on the idea
   that segregation in education is likely to
   (1) deny individuals equal opportunities to make
       social and economic progress
   (2) interfere with the right to privacy in public
   (3) create excessive burdens on school
       transportation systems
   (4) result in high tax increases to support separate
       school systems
Answer: 1

40 What was a direct result of the Bay of Pigs invasion
   in 1961?
   (1) Fidel Castro was removed from power.
   (2) Cold War tensions increased.
   (3) The United States announced its Good
       Neighbor policy.
   (4) The communist government in Nicaragua was
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 41 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …In a land of great wealth, families must not live
   in hopeless poverty. In a land rich in harvest,
   children just must not go hungry. In a land of
   healing miracles, neighbors must not suffer and
   die unattended. In a great land of learning and
   scholars, young people must be taught to read
   and write….
       — President Lyndon B. Johnson, Inaugural Address,
                                        January 20, 1965
41 Which program was proposed by President
   Lyndon B. Johnson to address the problems
   identified in this passage?
   (1) Square Deal             (3) Great Society
   (2) New Frontier            (4) New Federalism
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 42 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
       I am asked frequently how Special Olympics
   was born. It really began in the late 195os and
   early ’6os, when I traveled through the United
   States to visit several institutions for people with
   intellectual disabilities. The conditions in those
   days were terrible. There was no special education,
   no physical activity and certainly no opportunity
   to play sports. My visits left an indelible mark for
   life—I knew I had found an area of enormous need
   where I could focus my life’s work and energy….
     — Eunice Kennedy Shriver, founder of Special Olympics
42 Based on this passage, the Special Olympics
   provides people with disabilities the opportunity to
   (1) obtain job training
   (2) receive an education
   (3) participate in competitive athletics
   (4) live in community institutions
Answer: 3

Base your answer to question 43 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 One major reason for the migration shown on the map between 1970 and 1985 is the
   (1) increased job opportunities in other parts of the country
   (2) return of most African Americans to the South
   (3) immigration of Europeans to areas with similar ethnic groups
   (4) desire for access to better educational opportunities
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 44 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
44 Which topic is the primary focus of this cartoon?
   (1) freedom of expression                 (3) due process of law
   (2) cruel and unusual punishment          (4) protection from self-incrimination
Answer: 1

45 The passage of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 and
   the creation of the Department of Homeland
   Security reflect the determination of the United
   States government to
   (1) search for weapons of mass destruction in
       South Asia
   (2) increase the globalization of the economy
   (3) bring about an end to the Cold War
   (4) prevent future terrorist attacks
Answer: 4

46 During the presidency of George W. Bush,
   relations with France, Germany, and Russia were
   strained when those nations
   (1) refused to increase the supply of crude oil to
       the United States
   (2) opposed the United States invasion of Iraq
   (3) viewed United States tariffs on manufactured
       goods as too high
   (4) became angered by United States immigration
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 47 on the table
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
47 Which statement is most clearly supported by the
   information provided in the table?
   (1) George Washington vetoed all the bills that
       were sent to him.
   (2) Andrew Jackson was the first president to use
       the veto power.
   (3) Abraham Lincoln was too occupied with the
       Civil War to oppose Congress.
   (4) Andrew Johnson faced the most effective
       opposition from Congress.
Answer: 4

48 The Embargo Act of 1807 and the Neutrality Acts
   of the 193os were both attempts by the United
   States to
   (1) assist struggling foreign economies
   (2) halt the flow of immigrants
   (3) avoid foreign conflicts
   (4) reduce trade deficits
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 49 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …And then the dispossessed were drawn west
   —from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico;
   from Nevada and Arkansas families, tribes, dusted
   out, tractored out. Carloads, caravans, homeless
   and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand
   and a hundred thousand and two hundred
   thousand. They streamed over the mountains,
   hungry and restless—restless as ants, scurrying
   to find work to do—to lift, to push, to pull, to pick,
   to cut—anything, any burden to bear, for food.
   The kids are hungry. We got no place to live. Like
   ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all
   for land….
                   — John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
49 The movement of the people described in this
   passage was primarily the result of the
   (1) effects of severe drought conditions on the
       Great Plains
   (2) high cost of the machinery needed to maintain
       family farms
   (3) overpopulation of the Midwest caused by the
       Homestead Act
   (4) construction of the interstate highway system
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 50 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
50 Which statement about population distribution is best supported by the information
   provided in the graph?
   (1) Since 1900, the percentage of the population located in the South has steadily
   (2) Since 1900, the greatest percentage increase in population has occurred in the
   (3) Before 1950, the greatest percentage change in population distribution occurred in
       the Midwest.
   (4) Since 1950, the population of the Northeast as a percentage of the nation has
       remained constant.
Answer: 2

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Technology
                 Throughout United States history, technological developments have played an
                 important role in transforming American society. These developments have had
                 both positive and negative effects on the United States and on American society.
                 Choose two technological developments that have transformed American society
                 and for each
                 • Describe the change brought about by the technological development
                 • Discuss the positive and/or negative effects this technological development has
                   had on the United States and/or on American society
           You may use any technological development that has transformed American life. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include:
                              Cotton gin—plantation economy (1793–1860)
                              Railroads—local and national markets (1830–1900)
                              Steel plow—farming on the Great Plains (1860–1940)
                              Elevators—urbanization (1890–present)
                              Automobile—population distribution (1920–1980)
                              Nuclear energy—practical or military applications (1940–present)
                              Television—political campaigns (1960–present)
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout the latter half of the 2oth century, protecting United States national
              interests was a major goal of United States foreign policy. This goal led the United
              States to fight wars in Korea (1950–1953), Vietnam (1955–1973), and the
              Persian Gulf (1990–1991). These wars had a significant impact on the United
              States and on other countries.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two wars mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to United States involvement
                  in that war
                • Discuss the impact of the war on the United States and/or on another country
                  or region
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a
   President Harry Truman was in Independence, MO, when he learned that North Korea had invaded South
Korea. He flew back to Washington, D.C.
       …The plane left the Kansas City Municipal Airport at two o’clock, and it took just a little over
       three hours to make the trip to Washington. I had time to think aboard the plane. In my
       generation, this was not the first occasion when the strong had attacked the weak. I recalled
       some earlier instances: Manchuria, Ethiopia, Austria. I remembered how each time that the
       democracies failed to act it had encouraged the aggressors to keep going ahead. Communism
       was acting in Korea just as Hitler, Mussolini, and the Japanese had acted ten, fifteen, and twenty
       years earlier. I felt certain that if South Korea was allowed to fall Communist leaders would be
       emboldened [encouraged] to override nations closer to our own shores. If the Communists were
       permitted to force their way into the Republic of Korea without opposition from the free world,
       no small nation would have the courage to resist threats and aggression by stronger Communist
       neighbors. If this was allowed to go unchallenged it would mean a third world war, just as similar
       incidents had brought on the second world war. It was also clear to me that the foundations and
       the principles of the United Nations were at stake unless this unprovoked attack on Korea could
       be stopped.…
                                     Source: President Harry Truman, Memoirs, Volume Two: Years of Trial and Hope,
                                                                                     Doubleday & Company, 1956
1a According to President Harry Truman, how would United States national interests be threatened if South
   Korea were allowed to fall to the communists? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 1b
   President Harry Truman met with congressional leaders on Tuesday, June 27, 1950, to discuss possible
United States actions regarding the crisis in Korea. Secretary of State Dean Acheson gave a briefing at the meeting.
        …On Monday [June 26, 1950], Mr. Acheson continued, it became apparent in Washington that
        the United States should adopt a very firm stand in the Far East, for two reasons: (a) the Korean
        forces appeared to be weakening fast and their leadership was weak and indecisive; (b) the
        governments of many Western European nations appeared to be in a state of near-panic, as they
        watched to see whether the United States would act or not. Therefore, Mr. Acheson concluded,
        the President had called another meeting at Blair House on Monday evening at which
        he decided, after consultation with his State and Defense advisers, to take additional steps which
        the President would now describe.…
            Sen. [Senator Thomas] Connally [Democrat, Texas] said that it was quite apparent that this
        was the clearest test case that the United Nations has ever faced. If the United Nations is ever
        going to do anything, this is the time, and if the United Nations cannot bring the crisis in Korea
        to an end, then we might just as well wash up the United Nations and forget it. There was
        general agreement around the table that this was the case and the President once again stated that
        he was going to make absolutely certain that everything we did in Korea would be in support of,
        and in conformity with, the decision by the Security Council of the United Nations.…
                                                              Source: President Harry S. Truman Library & Museum
1b Based on this document, why was it important for the United States to aid South Korea? [1]
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Document 2a
   A changing front in Korea reflected military victories and losses until an armistice line near the 38th parallel
was established.
Document 2b
  During the “talking war” to reach an armistice, the fighting continued and casualties (dead and wounded) increased.
        …It had been a long and terrible war, the cost of which could never be accurately reckoned. The
        Pentagon estimated that military casualties on both sides came close to 2.4 million. Other
        sources estimated that North and South Korean civilian casualties were about 2 million. If these
        figures are approximately accurate, then about 4.4 million men, women, and children were
        killed, murdered, wounded, or otherwise incapacitated [injured] in the war. Both North Korea
        and South Korea were utterly ravaged. It would take decades for each nation to rise from the rubble.
             Americans paid a high price for President Truman’s decision to “draw the line” in South
        Korea: 54,246 dead (33,629 killed on the battlefield; 20,617 military dead from other causes) and
        103,284 wounded. The cost of the last two years of the talking war, in order to fix the DMZ
        [Demilitarized Zone] at Line Kansas [armistice line], to guarantee former enemies freedom of
        choice in repatriation [returning home], and to effect the release of 12,773 surviving UN POW’s
        [prisoners of war] (including 3,597 Americans), was especially dear: 63,200 American casualties
        alone, 12,300 of whom were killed on the battlefield.…
                      Source: Clay Blair, The Forgotten War: America in Korea 1950–1953, Times Books, 1987 (adapted)
 2 Based on these documents, what were two results of the conflict in Korea? [2]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 3
      ALTHOUGH the armistice has remained in effect since July 1953, in the absence of a formal
      peace treaty a state of war technically continues to exist between North and South Korea.
      Glaring at each other across the demilitarized zone, the two regimes have as yet not even made
      any progress toward mutual recognition, let alone toward cooperation. They have no diplomatic
      or economic relations whatsoever, not even postal or telephone links. Thus, although some 10
      million of South Korea’s 42 million people have close relatives living in the north, they are unable
      to communicate with them except, in a very limited number of cases, by means of an occasional
      supervised visit of an hour or two along the border. Fears of a new Communist attack remain so
      intense that on the fifteenth of every month the wail of sirens sends the entire population of
      Seoul scurrying for shelter in a full-dress air-raid drill.…
             Source: Richard Whelan, Drawing the Line: The Korean War, 1950–1953, Little, Brown and Company, 1990
3 According to Richard Whelan, what was one result of the Korean War? [1]
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4 Based on this time line, state one way the United States was involved in Vietnam between 1946 and 1964. [1]
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Document 5
   This is an excerpt from a speech by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in which he argues that
supporting South Vietnam is in the national interest of the United States.
       …We do so in their interest; and we do so in our own clear self-interest. For basic to
       the principles of freedom and self-determination which have sustained our country for almost
       two centuries is the right of peoples everywhere to live and develop in peace.
            Our own security is strengthened by the determination of others to remain free, and by
       our commitment to assist them. We will not let this member of our family down, regardless of
       its distance from our shores.…
            Second, Southeast Asia has great strategic significance in the forward defense of the
       United States. Its location across east-west air and sea lanes flanks the Indian subcontinent on
       one side and Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines on the other, and dominates
       the gateway between the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
            In Communist hands this area would pose a most serious threat to the security of the
       United States and to the family of free world nations to which we belong. To defend Southeast
       Asia we must meet the challenge in South Vietnam.…
                                                                     Source: New York Times, March 27, 1964
 5 According to Robert McNamara, what are two reasons Vietnam was important to the national interest of
   the United States? [2]
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Document 6a
     …Under five Presidents and 12 Congresses, the United States was engaged in Indochina.
     Millions of Americans served, thousands died, and many more were wounded, imprisoned, or lost.
     Over $150 billion have been appropriated for that war by the Congress of the United States.
     And after years of effort, we negotiated, under the most difficult circumstances, a settlement
     which made it possible for us to remove our military forces and bring home with pride our
     American prisoners. This settlement, if its terms had been adhered to [followed], would have
     permitted our South Vietnamese ally, with our material and moral support, to maintain its
     security and rebuild after two decades of war.…
                           Source: President Gerald R. Ford, Address to Joint Session of Congress, April 10, 1975
6 Based on these documents, what were two results of United States involvement in Vietnam? [2]
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Document 7
7 According to President George H. W. Bush, what were two reasons for United States involvement in the
  Persian Gulf region? [2]
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Document 8
          “They set out to confront an enemy abroad,” President [George H. W.] Bush declared last
      week as he praised the men and women who won the most decisive American military victory
      since World War II. “And in the process, they transformed a nation at home.”
          To a president triumphant, to a nation relieved and to a military that almost seemed to be
      born anew, the victory over Iraq was only half the story: Desert Storm was also a victory over two
      decades of American self-doubt. On the wall of the briefing room at the Riyadh [Saudi Arabia]
      Hyatt Regency Hotel, a hand-drawn cartoon appeared: a rock in the empty Iraqi desert, bearing
      the epitaph “Here Lies Vietnam.”…
                           Source: Stephen Budiansky, “A force reborn,” U.S. News & World Report, March 18, 1991
8 According to Stephen Budiansky, what was one result of the 1991 Persian Gulf War? [1]
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Document 9
      …The military campaign had been successful in forcing Saddam Hussein’s withdrawal from
      Kuwait, but the Iraqi leader remained in power.
      A UN mandate for weapons inspections was established in a resolution passed in April 1991.
      The first operation by the inspections body, Unscom [United Nations Special Commission], was
      carried out in June, setting in train [starting] seven years of monitoring.
      Economic sanctions imposed after Iraq invaded Kuwait remained in place, with Iraq banned
      from importing or exporting anything but food and medicines.
      These continued for 12 years, although Iraq agreed in 1996 to a UN offer to allow it to export a
      limited amount of oil to raise funds for humanitarian supplies.
                                               Source: “Flashback: 1991 Gulf War,” BBC NEWS, March 20, 2003
9 According to this article, what was one result of the 1991 Persian Gulf War? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout the latter half of the 2oth century, protecting United States national
                interests was a major goal of United States foreign policy. This goal led the United
                States to fight wars in Korea (1950–1953), Vietnam (1955–1973), and the
                Persian Gulf (1990–1991). These wars had a significant impact on the United
                States and on other countries.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two wars mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to United States involvement
                    in that war
                  • Discuss the impact of the war on the United States and/or on another country
                    or region
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion
                  that are beyond a restatement of the theme
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2014 Exam

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