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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2015 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
   Base your answer to question 1 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1   Information such as that shown on the map is important to state governments because
    it is used to
    (1) establish immigration quotas
    (2) set Social Security taxation rates
    (3) identify the best location for new military bases
    (4) determine the number of seats each state will have in the House of Representatives
Answer: 4

2.
 2 River systems were important to the
   development of the United States because they
   (1) allowed Americans to travel easily between
       the east coast and the west coast
   (2) prevented foreign invasion of United States
       territory
   (3) provided routes for shipping agricultural and
       manufacturing products
   (4) made the southeast the major destination for
       immigrants
    Base your answer to question 3 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …that to secure these rights, governments are
   instituted among men, deriving their just powers
   from the consent of the governed, —that
   whenever any form of government becomes
   destructive of these ends, it is the right of the
   people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute
   new government, …
                    — Declaration of Independence, 1776
Answer: 3

3.
3 This passage demonstrates that Thomas Jefferson
  was directly influenced by the
  (1) ideas of John Locke
  (2) goals of the Albany Plan of Union
  (3) belief in the divine right of kings
  (4) traditional separation of church and state
Answer: 1


4.
4 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787,
  supporters of the Virginia plan and supporters of
  the New Jersey plan differed over the method for
  (1) determining congressional representation
  (2) selecting the president’s cabinet
  (3) adopting the amendment process
  (4) giving powers to the executive branch
Answer: 1

5.
5 Which provision of the original Constitution
  allows Congress to enact legislation that adapts to
  changing circumstances?
  (1) due process
  (2) elastic clause
  (3) electoral college
  (4) Three-fifths Compromise
Answer: 2

6.
    Base your answer to question 6 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   Article 6. There shall be neither slavery nor
   involuntary servitude in the said territory,
   otherwise than in the punishment of crimes
   whereof the party shall have been duly convicted:
   Provided, always, that any person escaping into
   the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully
   claimed in any one of the original states, such
   fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed
   to the person claiming his or her labor or service
   as aforesaid. …
                          — Northwest Ordinance, 1787
 6 In which Supreme Court case did this provision
   of the Northwest Ordinance play an important
   part?
   (1) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
   (2) Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
   (3) Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
   (4) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Answer: 3

7.
7 The Federalist Papers, written by Alexander
  Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were
  intended to
  (1) promote independence from Great Britain
  (2) persuade voters to keep the Articles of
      Confederation
  (3) win support for ratification of the Constitution
  (4) endorse candidates running for Congress
Answer: 3

8.
8 Which provision of the Bill of Rights was
  influenced by the trial of John Peter Zenger?
  (1) right to bear arms
  (2) right to an attorney
  (3) freedom of religion
  (4) freedom of the press
Answer: 4

9.
9 The Preamble of the Constitution demonstrates
  that the writers believed that sovereignty belongs
  to the
  (1) federal government (3) president
  (2) state governments       (4) people
Answer: 4

10.
10 “Senate Rejects Supreme Court Nominee”
   “Supreme Court Declares National Recovery Act
   (NRA) Unconstitutional”
   “Congress Overrides Truman Veto of Taft-Hartley
   Act”
   Each of these headlines illustrates the use of
   (1) reserved powers        (3) executive privilege
   (2) checks and balances (4) federal supremacy
Answer: 2

11.
11 During the presidency of George Washington,
   disagreements between Alexander Hamilton and
   Thomas Jefferson over the interpretation of the
   Constitution contributed to the
   (1) impeachment of federal judges
   (2) defeat of the Whiskey Rebellion
   (3) formation of political parties
   (4) elimination of the commerce clause
Answer: 3

12.
12 One reason President George Washington called
   for a policy of neutrality in the 1790s was to
   (1) improve his popularity among Federalist
       voters
   (2) avoid United States participation in
       European wars
   (3) gain support for the development of a United
       States navy
   (4) enforce the Treaty of Alliance with France
Answer: 2

13.
13 Which geographical consideration had the
   greatest influence on President Thomas
   Jefferson’s decision to purchase the Louisiana
   Territory in 1803?
   (1) Large gold reserves were located in the
       territory.
   (2) The size of the territory would create a
       barrier to French influence.
   (3) The Rocky Mountain region was an outlet for
       future population growth.
   (4) Full control of the port of New Orleans on
       the Mississippi River would be established.
Answer: 4

14.
14 The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v.
   Madison (1803) strengthened the constitutional
   principle of separation of powers by
   (1) defining the Court’s role in impeachment
       trials
   (2) clarifying the president’s authority to veto
       bills passed by Congress
   (3) denying states the right to sue the federal
       government
   (4) establishing the Court’s right to review the
       constitutionality of federal laws
Answer: 4

15.
15 One result of the War of 1812 was that the United
   States
   (1) acquired French-held territory in southern
       Canada
   (2) maintained its independence and its territory
   (3) lost control of the Ohio River valley
   (4) gained territory from Mexico
Answer: 2

16.
16 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
(1)   Rise of Sectionalism
(2)   Impact of Industrialization
(3)   Examples of Religious Revivalism
(4)   Events Leading to the Mexican War
Answer: 1

17.
17 The Homestead Act and grants of land to
   railroads were used to
   (1) raise money to finance the federal government
   (2) limit the influence of monopolies and trusts
   (3) support the development of state universities
   (4) encourage settlement of the West
Answer: 4

18.
18 What was one effect of the Industrial Revolution
   on United States agriculture in the late 1800s?
   (1) a decrease in the size of farms
   (2) a decrease in tenant farming and sharecropping
   (3) an increase in agricultural imports
   (4) an increase in productivity
Answer: 4

19.
19 As the Civil War ended, which action was
   supported by President Abraham Lincoln and the
   Radical Republicans?
   (1) abolishing the institution of slavery by a
       constitutional amendment
   (2) passing Black Codes to guarantee equality for
       formerly enslaved persons
   (3) putting Confederate leaders on trial for war
       crimes
   (4) ending the military occupation of the South
       immediately
Answer: 1

20.
20 In the late 1800s, which concept was used to
   justify the accumulation of great wealth and
   economic power?
   (1) Manifest Destiny
   (2) self-determination
   (3) Social Darwinism
   (4) conspicuous consumption
Answer: 3


21.
21 The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the
   Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan in 1907 both
   illustrate
   (1) the role of nativism in the development of
        United States policies
   (2) imperialist attitudes in foreign affairs
   (3) restrictive trading policies toward Asian nations
   (4) the influence of big business on foreign policy
Answer: 1

22.
22 President Theodore Roosevelt was called a
   trustbuster because he
   (1) supported the building of the Panama Canal
   (2) negotiated peace between Russia and Japan
   (3) supported legal action against business
       monopolies
   (4) protected public lands from environmental
       damage
Answer: 3

23.
23 President Theodore Roosevelt’s commitment to
   the proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick;
   you will go far,” was most clearly shown when he
   (1) opposed consumer protection laws
   (2) intervened in Latin American affairs
   (3) promoted the conservation of natural resources
   (4) conducted the Bull Moose campaign of 1912
Answer: 2

24.
24 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
(1)   Progressive Era Constitutional Amendments
(2)   Steps to Promote Civil Rights
(3)   Municipal and State Actions
(4)   Changes During World War I
Answer: 1

25.
25 One way in which the Federal Trade Commission
   (1914) and the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) are
   similar is that both
   (1) helped to end child labor in factories
   (2) attempted to correct abusive business practices
   (3) advanced laissez-faire economic principles
   (4) increased wages for factory workers
Answer: 2

26.
26 The Supreme Court decision in Schenck v.
   United States (1919) supported the position that
   during a national emergency
   (1) internal migration may be restricted
   (2) civil liberties of United States citizens may be
       limited
   (3) Congress may take control of the economy
   (4) minority groups may be segregated from the
       general population
Answer: 2

27.
27 During the 1920s, the Palmer raids, immigration
   quotas, and the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti
   resulted from
   (1) racial prejudice against African Americans
   (2) opposition to the Ku Klux Klan
   (3) the fear that American values were threatened
       by radical ideas
   (4) the need to strengthen national defense
Answer: 3

28.
28 Which factor led to agricultural overproduction
   and falling farm prices during the 1920s?
   (1) decline in European demand after World War I
   (2) lower tariffs enacted by Congress
   (3) lack of access to cheap credit
   (4) decreasing population in cities of the South
Answer: 1

29.
Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                              ÒHooverville,Ó Seattle, Washington
29 What was the main reason for the emergence of “Hoovervilles” like the one shown in
   the photograph?
   (1) Many Americans had lost jobs during the Great Depression.
   (2) Thousands of homes had been destroyed by the effects of the Dust Bowl.
   (3) Housing projects could not keep up with the demand for homes needed by the poor.
   (4) Preparations for World War II had created a shortage of building materials.
Answer: 1

30.
30 The New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to address the problem
   shown in the photograph by
   (1) expanding the armed services
   (2) using the police to evict “Hooverville” residents
   (3) delivering food, water, and medical supplies to residents
   (4) providing jobs and home loans to American workers
Answer: 4

31.
31 During the early 1930s, the main goal of the
   Bonus Army was to pressure the Hoover
   administration to
   (1) strengthen the nation’s defenses
   (2) end the military draft
   (3) bring American troops home from overseas
   (4) support the early payment of money
       promised to veterans
Answer: 4

32.
32 Opponents of the New Deal criticized President
   Franklin D. Roosevelt for
   (1) expanding the role and size of the federal
       government
   (2) permitting banks to operate without
       government regulation
   (3) weakening the executive branch
   (4) reducing spending to balance the budget
Answer: 1

33.
Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the poster below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 The poster indicates that rationing during World War II was a
   (1) way of assuring that only the wealthy could buy certain products
   (2) necessity caused by farm failures during the Great Depression
   (3) program that was to be applied equally to all Americans
   (4) policy to encourage small business owners
Answer: 3

34.
34 What was a major reason for wartime rationing?
   (1) restricting lower-priced food imports
   (2) ensuring that troops were adequately supplied
   (3) providing jobs for the unemployed
   (4) preventing currency deflation
Answer: 2

35.
35 The relocation of Japanese Americans from the
   West Coast during World War II occurred because
   (1) most of them were not citizens of the United
       States
   (2) they refused to serve in the United States
       military
   (3) they were needed to work at inland defense
       industries
   (4) military authorities considered them a threat
       to national security
Answer: 4


36.
Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
      …We have agreed on common policies and plans for enforcing the unconditional surrender
      terms which we shall impose together on Nazi Germany after German armed resistance has
      been finally crushed. These terms will not be made known until the final defeat of Germany
      has been accomplished. Under the agreed plan, the forces of the three powers will each
      occupy a separate zone of Germany. Coordinated administration and control has been
      provided for under the plan through a central control commission consisting of the Supreme
      Commanders of the three powers with headquarters in Berlin. It has been agreed that
      France should be invited by the three powers, if she should so desire, to take over a zone of
      occupation, and to participate as a fourth member of the control commission. The limits of
      the French zone will be agreed by the four Governments concerned through their
      representatives on the European Advisory Commission. …
                                                    — Joint Statement of President Franklin D. Roosevelt,
                                                                   Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and
                                                       Marshal Joseph Stalin at Yalta, February 11, 1945
      36 Based on this passage, a major purpose of the Yalta Conference was to
         (1) prepare for control of Germany after World War II
         (2) offer Germany generous terms of surrender to shorten the war
         (3) rebuild German industries following the war
         (4) prevent Germany’s membership in the United Nations
Answer: 1

37.
37 The plan described in this passage contributed to the
   (1) complete removal of United States troops from Germany
   (2) authorization for Germany to join the Axis powers
   (3) long-term division of Germany into two nations
   (4) domination of Germany by France
Answer: 3

38.
38 Which action best illustrates the Cold War policy
   of containment?
   (1) participating in the Nuremberg trials
   (2) creating the North Atlantic Treaty
       Organization (NATO)
   (3) encouraging scientific cooperation between
       the Allies
   (4) recognizing the state of Israel in 1948
Answer: 2

39.
39 The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl
   Warren (1953—1969) is considered one of the
   most liberal in United States history because it
   (1) worked effectively with lower courts
   (2) gained the overwhelming support of the
       American people
   (3) expanded the civil rights of various groups of
       people
   (4) favored a strict interpretation of the
       Constitution
Answer: 3

40.
Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
40 Which characteristic of American life in the 1950s is illustrated in this cartoon?
   (1) growth of the elderly population
   (2) effects of suburbanization
   (3) decreasing use of automobiles
   (4) declining importance of the media
Answer: 2

41.
41 Which factor directly contributed to the post–World War II development of the
   community shown in the cartoon?
   (1) rise in the birth rate
   (2) decrease in school construction
   (3) decline in the availability of home loans
   (4) increase in the number of women in the labor force
Answer: 1

42.
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                                    National Security Blanket
42 The main idea of this cartoon is that President Richard Nixon
   (1) refused to become involved in political activities
   (2) supported campaign finance reform
   (3) exercised presidential power to defend national interests
   (4) tried to use foreign policy issues to cover up illegal activities
Answer: 4

43.
43 Based on this cartoon, one effect of President Richard Nixon’s actions on the United States
   was to
   (1) prove that the powers of presidents are unlimited
   (2) decrease the probability of impeachment for future presidents
   (3) weaken the public’s trust in political leaders
   (4) demonstrate that the Supreme Court could not rule on presidential wrongdoing
Answer: 3

44.
44 Which statement most accurately explains why
   the War Powers Act (1973) was passed?
   (1) President Lyndon B. Johnson failed to send
       enough troops to South Vietnam.
   (2) President Richard Nixon negotiated a peace
       treaty with North Vietnam.
   (3) Congress wanted to reassert its right to
       authorize military action.
   (4) Military leaders demanded limits on
       presidential authority during wartime.
Answer: 3

45.
45 The 1972, 1979, and 1987 missile reduction
   agreements between the United States and the
   Soviet Union are examples of the foreign policy
   of
   (1) brinksmanship       (3) appeasement
   (2) détente             (4) neutrality
Answer: 2

46.
Base your answer to question 46 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
46 In this 2008 cartoon about a tax proposal by President George W. Bush, the cartoonist
   is implying that China anticipated
   (1) a more favorable balance of trade with the United States
   (2) greater difficulty in selling its products in the United States
   (3) the opening of new markets for Chinese goods in Europe
   (4) an increase in United States tariffs that could cause a recession in China
Answer: 1

47.
Base your answers to questions 47 and 48 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
47 Which statement most accurately expresses the cartoonist’s point of view?
   (1) Presidents have failed to learn the right lessons from past experiences in waging war.
   (2) Victory in Vietnam inspired later presidents to become involved in wars.
   (3) The Iraq and Afghanistan wars ended in quick victories for the United States.
   (4) The military tactics used in Vietnam have been effective in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Answer: 1

48.
48 The cartoonist most likely refers to the war in Afghanistan as “Obama’s Vietnam”
   because
   (1) the war was begun during the administration of President Barack Obama
   (2) the war ended soon after President Barack Obama took office
   (3) President Barack Obama favored the reinstatement of the military draft
   (4) President Barack Obama chose to continue military involvement in Afghanistan
Answer: 4

49.
49 “President Carter Negotiates Camp David Accords”
   “President Reagan Sends Troops to Lebanon”
   “President Bush Orders Operation Desert Storm”
   Which United States foreign policy goal is most
   closely associated with these headlines?
   (1) imperialism in Latin America
   (2) globalization of trade
   (3) stability in the Middle East
   (4) delivery of humanitarian relief
Answer: 3

50.
50 During the Jacksonian Era, elections became
   more democratic when
   (1) the poll tax was abolished
   (2) states removed property qualifications for
       voting
   (3) a women’s rights amendment was ratified
   (4) 18-year-old citizens were allowed to vote
Answer: 2


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
        In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
              (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
              (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                  and argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Foreign Policy
                 Throughout United States history, presidents have made foreign policy decisions
                 that have been opposed by individuals and groups. These decisions have had an
                 impact on both the United States and on other countries and regions.
        Task:
                 Select two foreign policy decisions that have been opposed by individuals and
                 groups and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that led the president to make the decision
                 • Discuss why an individual and/or group opposed the decision
                 • Discuss the impact of this foreign policy decision on the United States and/or
                   on another country or region
            You may use any foreign policy decision that has been opposed by individuals and groups
        from your study of United States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include
        James K. Polk’s decision to send troops to the Rio Grande (1846), William McKinley’s decision
        to annex the Philippines (1898), Woodrow Wilson’s support for the Treaty of Versailles
        (1919–1920), Franklin D. Roosevelt’s aid to Great Britain before United States entry into World
        War II (1939–1941), Harry Truman’s decision to defend South Korea (1950–1953), Lyndon B.
        Johnson’s decision to send combat troops to South Vietnam (1965), and George W. Bush’s
        decision to invade Iraq (2003).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a
                  conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout the history of the United States, different groups have faced problems in
              American society. These groups have included African Americans, industrial
              workers, and persons with disabilities. Individuals, organizations, and governments
              have addressed problems faced by these groups.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two groups mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding a problem the group faced
                • Discuss how the problem was addressed by an individual, an organization,
                  and/or a government
       In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
             (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
             (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                 and argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
    This excerpt is from a petition to Congress in 1871 by African Americans in Frankfort, Kentucky, seeking
protection from the Ku Klux Klan.
        …We would respectfully state that life, liberty, and property are unprotected among the colored
        race [African Americans] of this State. Organized bands of desperate and lawless men, mainly
        composed of soldiers of the late rebel armies, armed, disciplined, and disguised, and bound by
        oath and secret obligations, have, by force, terror, and violence, subverted [undermined] all civil
        society among colored people; thus utterly rendering insecure the safety of persons and
        property, overthrowing all those rights which are the primary basis and objects of the
        Government, which are expressly guaranteed to us by the Constitution of the United States as
        amended [by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments]. …
            We would state that we have been law-abiding citizens, pay our taxes, and in many parts of
        the State our people have been driven from the polls, refused the right to vote; many have been
        slaughtered while attempting to vote. We ask, how long is this state of things to last? …
                                                   Source: Petition to the United States Congress, March 25, 1871,
                            Miscellaneous Documents of the United States Senate, 42nd Congress, 1st Session, 1871
 1 According to this document, what was one problem faced by African Americans in Kentucky? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2
      …We want full manhood suffrage, and we want it now, henceforth and forever. …
          We want the laws enforced against rich as well as poor; against Capitalist as well as Laborer;
      against white as well as black. We are not more lawless than the white race, we are more often
      arrested, convicted and mobbed. We want justice even for criminals and outlaws. We want the
      Constitution of the country enforced. We want Congress to take charge of Congressional
      elections. We want the Fourteenth Amendment carried out to the letter and every State
      disfranchised* in Congress which attempts to disfranchise [deny voting rights to] its rightful
      voters. We want the Fifteenth Amendment enforced and no State allowed to base its franchise
      simply on color. …
          These are some of the chief things which we want. How shall we get them? By voting where we
      may vote, by persistent, unceasing agitation; by hammering at the truth, by sacrifice and work. …
    *The 14th amendment provides that states denying voting rights to male citizens will lose some representatives in Congress.
                                                     Source: W. E. B. Du Bois, Niagara Movement Address, 1906 (adapted)
2 According to this document, what is one demand made by W. E. B. Du Bois regarding the rights of African
  Americans? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 3a
       …Many of the issues of civil rights are very complex and most difficult. But about this there can
       and should be no argument. Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. There is
       no reason which can excuse the denial of that right. There is no duty which weighs more heavily
       on us than the duty we have to ensure that right. …
           Every device of which human ingenuity is capable has been used to deny this right. The
       Negro [African American] citizen may go to register only to be told that the day is wrong, or the
       hour is late, or the official in charge is absent. And if he persists, and if he manages to present
       himself to the registrar, he may be disqualified because he did not spell out his middle name or
       because he abbreviated a word on the application.
           And if he manages to fill out an application he is given a test. The registrar is the sole judge
       of whether he passes this test. He may be asked to recite the entire Constitution, or explain the
       most complex provisions of State law. And even a college degree cannot be used to prove that
       he can read and write. …
           Wednesday I will send to Congress a law designed to eliminate illegal barriers to the right to
       vote. …
       Source: President Lyndon B. Johnson, Special Message to the Congress: The American Promise, March 15, 1965
3a According to President Lyndon B. Johnson, what is one way African Americans are kept from voting? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 3b
                African American Voter Registration Before and After
              Passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Percent Change)
3b Based on this map, what was one effect of the Voting Rights Act of 1965? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4
  This is an excerpt from the author’s account of his visit to the Homestead, Pennsylvania, steel mill.
       …“How long do you work?” I asked of a young man who stood at the furnace near me.
           “Twelve hours,” he replied. “The night set go on at six at night and come off at six in the
       morning. I go on at six and off at six.”
           “For how much pay?”
           “Two dollars and a quarter.”
           “How much do those men get shovelling there in the rain?”
           “One dollar and forty cents.” (A cut has since taken place.)
           “What proportion of the men get that pay?”
           “Two-thirds of the whole plant, nearly two thousand. There are thirty-five hundred men in
       the mills. They get all prices, of course, from a dollar and forty cents up to the tonnage men, who
       get five and ten dollars per day when the mills run smooth.”
           “I suppose not many men make ten dollars per day.”
           “Well hardly.” He smiled. “Of course the ‘rollers’ and the ‘heaters’ get the most, but there
       are only two ‘rollers’ to each mill, and three ‘heaters,’ and they are responsible for their product.
       The most of the men get under two dollars per day.”
           “And it is twelve hours’ work without stop?”
           “You bet! And then again you will see we only get this pay part of the time. The mills are
       liable to be shut down part of the year. They shut down part of the night sometimes, and of
       course we’re docked. Then, again, the tendency of the proprietors is to cut down the tonnage
       men; that is, the ‘rollers’ and ‘heaters’ are now paid by the ton, but they’ll some day be paid by
       the day, like the rest of us.”
           “You bet they will,” said my guide, who seemed quite familiar with the facts. …
                                Source: Hamlin Garland, “Homestead and its Perilous Trades—Impressions of a Visit,”
                                                                                    McClure’s Magazine, June 1894
4 According to Hamlin Garland, state one problem faced by workers in the Homestead steel mill. [1]
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58.
Document 5a
     …We demand a reduction of the hours of labor which would give a due share of work and wages
     to the reserve army of labor [the unemployed] and eliminate many of the worst abuses of the
     industrial system now filling our poor houses and jails. The movement for the reduction of the
     hours of labor is contemporaneous with the introduction of labor saving machinery and has been
     the most faithful of all reformatory attempts of modern times, since it has clearly revealed the
     power of the working people to realize an improved industrial system and raises the hope that
     we may yet be able to stem the tide of economic, social and moral degradations, robbing those
     who work of four-fifths of their natural wages and keeping the whole of society within a few
     months of destitution. …
        That the lives and limbs of the wage-workers shall be regarded as sacred as those of all others
     of our fellow human beings; that an injury or destruction of either by reason of negligence or
     maliciousness of another, shall not leave him without redress simply because he is a wage worker.
     We demand equality before the law, in fact as well as in theory. …
        And by no means the least demand of the Trade Unions is for adequate wages. …
                                                      Source: Samuel Gompers, What Does Labor Want?, 1893
Document 5b
                          The Growth of Union Membership, 1878–1904
5 Based on these documents, what were two ways workers tried to address their problems? [2]
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59.
Document 6a
      This Act defines, as a part of our substantive [essential] law, the right of self-organization of
      employees in industry for the purpose of collective bargaining, and provides methods by which
      the Government can safeguard that legal right. It establishes a National Labor Relations Board
      to hear and determine cases in which it is charged that this legal right is abridged [diminished]
      or denied, and to hold fair elections to ascertain [determine] who are the chosen representatives
      of employees. …
          Source: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Statement on Signing the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act),
                                                                                                          July 5, 1935
Document 6b
      …After many requests on my part the Congress passed a Fair Labor Standards Act, what we call
      the Wages and Hours Bill. That Act—applying to products in interstate commerce—ends child
      labor, sets a floor below wages [minimum wage] and a ceiling over hours of labor [maximum
      hours].
           Except perhaps for the Social Security Act, it is the most far-reaching, the most far-sighted
      program for the benefit of workers ever adopted here or in any other country. Without question
      it starts us toward a better standard of living and increases purchasing power to buy the products
      of farm and factory. …
                                                 Source: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat, June 24, 1938
6 According to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, state two ways workers would benefit from legislation passed
  during his administration. [2]
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60.
Document 7
      …What results from segregation [of the disabled] is social isolation. Physical and psychological
      separation, imprisonment in an institution or in a small, dilapidated apartment building, these
      are the realities for numerous disabled Americans. The psychic cost is incalculable. Enforced
      dependency and isolation crush the self-image, and combined with other architectural and
      transportation barriers may prove devastating. The individual cannot find work because the
      workplaces are inaccessible, employers discriminate against him, and no suitable transportation
      is available. Because he cannot find suitable work, he cannot afford decent housing. The barriers
      are inescapably intertwined [connected]. …
                       Source: Frank Bowe, Handicapping America: Barriers to Disabled People, Harper & Row, 1978
7 According to Frank Bowe, what are two problems faced by persons with disabilities? [2]
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61.
Document 8
                  Selected Federal Legislation for Persons with Disabilities
    Date Passed      Federal Legislation                                   Terms
                                                Requires that buildings and facilities constructed with
        1968       Architectural Barriers Act   federal funding be accessible to people with physical
                                                disabilities.
                   Education for All            Requires that children with disabilities have the right
        1975       Handicapped Children         to a public school education in an integrated (least
                   Act                          restrictive) environment.
                   Telecommunications for       Requires that deaf and hard-of-hearing people have
        1982
                   the Disabled Act             telephone access at important public places.
                                Source: Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access, 2001 (adapted)
8 Based on the information in this chart, state two ways federal legislation has helped persons with
  disabilities. [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 9
      . . . [President Bill] Clinton diffused a controversy that had threatened to mar the dedication
      when he sided with disabled activists who demanded that a statue be added to the memorial
      showing FDR [President Franklin D. Roosevelt] in a wheelchair. On Clinton’s recommendation,
      the Senate on Thursday night passed and sent to the House legislation to add the statue. . . .
           But the biggest controversy arose over the decision by the FDR Memorial Commission to
      stick with 1978 statue designs that were in keeping with FDR’s own reluctance to be seen
      publicly in a wheelchair. Roosevelt went to exhausting lengths not to appear disabled.
           About two dozen demonstrators sat in wheelchairs, leaned on walkers, hobbled along with
      crutches or walked with white canes outside the memorial before the dedication. “We are no
      longer hiding our disabilities,” said one of the group, Becky Ogle, 41, who is a double amputee
      and director of disabled outreach for the White House. “When I was a child growing up, the
      message to me was I am sick. Well, I am not sick. We are not victims. Attitude is the last barrier
      for us.” . . .
                               Source: Doug Struck, “Clinton Dedicates Memorial, Urges Americans to Emulate FDR,”
                                                                                     Washington Post, May 3, 1997
9 Based on this document, how have the attitudes of the disabled changed since Franklin D. Roosevelt was
  president? [1]
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63.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout the history of the United States, different groups have faced problems in
                American society. These groups have included African Americans, industrial
                workers, and persons with disabilities. Individuals, organizations, and governments
                have addressed problems faced by these groups.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two groups mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding a problem the group faced
                  • Discuss how the problem was addressed by an individual, an organization,
                    and/or a government
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion
                  that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2015 Exam


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