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US History and Government - New York Regents January 2011 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

   Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the
chart below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Based on the rankings on the census chart, the
  most populous state in 1900 and 1950 was
  (1) California            (3) Massachusetts
  (2) Illinois              (4) New York
Answer: 4

2 Based on the ranking from the 2000 census,
  which pair of states had the greatest number of
  electors in the 2008 presidential election?
  (1) Florida and California
  (2) Iowa and Indiana
  (3) Pennsylvania and Virginia
  (4) California and Texas
Answer: 4

3 Which city is correctly paired with the geographic
  feature that most directly affected its growth?
  (1) New Orleans — Pacific Ocean
  (2) New York City — Chesapeake Bay
  (3) Chicago — Great Lakes
  (4) Los Angeles — Appalachian Mountains
Answer: 3

4 The Mayflower Compact is considered an
  important step in the development of American
  democracy because it
  (1) established the principle of separation of
      church and state
  (2) provided a basis for self-government in the
      Plymouth Colony
  (3) defined relations with local Native American
  (4) outlawed slavery in the Massachusetts Bay
Answer: 2

5 Which economic policy was based on the idea
  that the American colonies existed primarily to
  provide economic benefits for Great Britain?
  (1) mercantilism
  (2) socialism
  (3) free trade
  (4) laissez-faire capitalism
Answer: 1

6 Why did the authors of the Articles of
  Confederation create a weak central government?
  (1) They lacked an understanding of state
  (2) They anticipated the threat of foreign
  (3) They relied on advice from royal governors.
  (4) They feared the kind of rule experienced
      under the British monarchy.
Answer: 4

7 The Three-fifths Compromise was included in
  the Constitution to resolve a conflict over the
  (1) counting of enslaved persons in relation to
      taxation and representation
  (2) reimbursement of plantation owners for
      runaway slaves
  (3) number of votes needed to approve a treaty in
      the Senate
  (4) number of states needed to ratify a proposed
Answer: 1

8 What is one feature of the political system
  created by the original Constitution of the United
  (1) guaranteeing equal legal rights to all persons
  (2) requiring the federal government to maintain
      a balanced budget
  (3) dividing powers between the national and
      state governments
  (4) granting more power to the executive branch
      than to the other branches of government
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 9 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent
   alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so
   far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for
   let me not be understood as capable of
   patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I
   hold the maxim [principle] no less applicable to
   public than to private affairs, that honesty is
   always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let
   those engagements be observed in their genuine
   sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and
   would be unwise to extend them.…
                       — President George Washington,
                                Farewell Address, 1796
 9 President Washington was offering this advice
   because he believed
   (1) the destiny of the United States was to rule
       other countries
   (2) the United States should seek alliances with
       other nations
   (3) alliances could draw the United States into
   (4) the United States should break its agreements
       with France
Answer: 3

10 At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates
   agreed that Congress should have the power to
   (1) declare laws unconstitutional
   (2) levy and collect taxes
   (3) select the president
   (4) eliminate slavery in the states
Answer: 2

11 Which action is an example of the system of
   checks and balances?
   (1) An individual pays both a state and a federal
       income tax.
   (2) New York State requires at least 180 school
       days per year.
   (3) The House of Representatives votes to expel
       one of its members.
   (4) The Senate approves a president’s nominee to
       the Supreme Court.
Answer: 4

12 Which heading best completes the partial outline
      I. _______
         A. Creation of a national bank
         B. Full funding of the national debt
         C. Collection of an excise tax on
   (1)   The Spoils System
   (2)   The American System
   (3)   Hamilton’s Financial Plan
   (4)   Constitutional Amendments
Answer: 3

13 One reason President Thomas Jefferson
   supported the Louisiana Purchase was that he
   wanted to
   (1) gain full control of the Mississippi River
   (2) establish a base for controlling the Caribbean
   (3) maintain control of the slave trade
   (4) acquire an established manufacturing region
Answer: 1

14 The Monroe Doctrine (1823) established the
   United States foreign policy that
   (1) provided foreign aid to developing nations
   (2) opposed the creation of new colonies in Latin
   (3) led directly to the Civil War
   (4) encouraged expansion into East Asia
Answer: 2

15 In the early 180os, which factor was most
   important in the development of Northern
   manufacturing centers?
   (1) abundance of water power
   (2) availability of slave labor in the North
   (3) development of gold mines
   (4) access to passes through the Appalachian
Answer: 1

16 “Uncle Tom’s Cabin Stirs Controversy”
   “Kansas Rocked by Bloody Conflict”
   “John Brown’s Raid Angers South”
   Which statement about the United States in the
   185os is best supported by these headlines?
   (1) The nation had grown increasingly divided
       over the future of slavery.
   (2) Americans had lost confidence in the plan for
   (3) Northern and Southern voters were united in
       support of popular sovereignty.
   (4) Support for the abolitionist movement
       decreased during this period.
Answer: 1

17 Both the Homestead Act (1862) and the Pacific
   Railway Act (1862) were efforts by the federal
   government to
   (1) provide land to minority groups
   (2) resolve conflicts with Native American
   (3) encourage settlement west of the Mississippi
   (4) support settlement of former plantation lands
Answer: 3

18 After the Civil War, Southern state legislatures
   attempted to restrict the rights of formerly
   enslaved persons by
   (1) passing Black Codes
   (2) ratifying the 15th amendment
   (3) supporting the goals of the Radical
   (4) enacting legislation to strengthen the
       Freedmen’s Bureau
Answer: 1

19 In the late 180os, which factor directly
   contributed to the growth of the steel industry?
   (1) government regulation of the industry
   (2) employee ownership of the industry
   (3) new production techniques that increased
   (4) court decisions that allowed collective
Answer: 3

20 Most nativists of the late 180os would most likely
   have supported the
   (1) creation of settlement houses to aid new
   (2) passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act
   (3) continuation of the contract labor system
   (4) assimilation of Native American Indians into
       mainstream culture
Answer: 2

21 The American Federation of Labor’s support for
   “bread and butter” unionism was intended to
   (1) gain control of state and federal legislatures
   (2) change the economic system to socialism
   (3) combine all skilled and unskilled workers into
       one large organization
   (4) improve wages, hours, and working conditions
Answer: 4

22 Yellow journalism contributed to the start of the
   Spanish-American War (1898) by
   (1) portraying William McKinley as a pro-war
   (2) inciting public outrage over conditions in
   (3) showing the need to acquire colonies in the
   (4) demanding the repeal of the Gentlemen’s
Answer: 2

23 A goal set at the Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
   was achieved during the Progressive Era by the
   (1) formation of the federal Food and Drug
   (2) creation of the League of Nations
   (3) adoption of a national income tax
   (4) ratification of the woman’s suffrage amendment
Answer: 4

24 Books such as The Octopus by Frank Norris, How
   the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis, and The
   Jungle by Upton Sinclair exposed problems
   associated with
   (1) naturalization of immigrants
   (2) westward expansion
   (3) rapid industrialization
   (4) environmental conservation
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 25 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
       I will build a motor car for the great
   multitude. It will be large enough for the family
   but small enough for the individual to run and
   care for. It will be constructed of the best
   materials, by the best men to be hired, after the
   simplest designs that modern engineering can
   devise. But it will be so low in price that no man
   making a good salary will be unable to own one—
   and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of
   pleasure in God’s great open spaces.
                                  — Henry Ford, 1909
25 Which action is most closely associated with
   Henry Ford’s attempt to realize this vision?
   (1) providing cars in a variety of models
   (2) creating a business monopoly
   (3) downsizing the labor force
   (4) using the assembly line
Answer: 4

26 The United States tried to avoid involvement in
   World War I by following a policy of
   (1) neutrality
   (2) collective security
   (3) economic boycotts
   (4) military preparedness
Answer: 1

27 The main reason for the increased migration of
   African Americans out of the rural South during
   and following World War I was the
   (1) availability of cheap farmland in the West
   (2) opportunity for factory jobs in the North
   (3) chance to escape racial segregation by joining
       the military
   (4) elimination of the Ku Klux Klan in the northern
Answer: 2

28 National attention was drawn to the Scopes trial
   of 1925 because the case
   (1) represented a conflict between science and
   (2) reversed a previous Supreme Court decision
       on free speech
   (3) upheld the right of veterans to protest in
       Washington, D. C.
   (4) revealed the extent of prejudice against
Answer: 1

29 Which American author was part of the Harlem
   Renaissance of the 192os?
   (1) F. Scott Fitzgerald   (3) Langston Hughes
   (2) Ernest Hemingway (4) John Steinbeck
Answer: 3

30 The economic boom of the 192os was fueled in
   part by
   (1) government subsidies paid to farmers
   (2) tariff reductions on European goods
   (3) increased investment in the stock market
   (4) construction by the Tennessee Valley
       Authority (TVA)
Answer: 3

31 What was a major cause of the Great Depression?
   (1) overproduction and underconsumption
   (2) a decrease in the supply of consumer goods
   (3) an increase in demand for imported products
   (4) an increase in the price of wheat on the world
Answer: 1

32 The New Deal changed American political
   thinking because it was based on the principle
   that the
   (1) economy will fix itself if left alone
   (2) federal government should attempt to solve
       social and economic problems
   (3) political parties must work together to deal
       with national problems
   (4) states should take a leadership position in
       solving social issues
Answer: 2

33 During World War II, the need of the United
   States for more war materials resulted in the
   (1) easing of government controls on the
   (2) use of lengthy strikes by labor unions
   (3) rationing of some consumer goods
   (4) reduction in profits for defense industries
Answer: 3

34 A. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
   B. Germany invades Poland.
   C. MacArthur dictates a democratic constitution
      to Japan.
   D. Allies invade Europe on D-Day.
   Which sequence of these events related to
   World War II is in the correct chronological

Answer: 2

35 The Nuremberg trials held at the conclusion of
   World War II added to international law by
   (1) settling boundary disputes in Europe through
   (2) placing the blame for World War II on many
   (3) ruling that moral and ethical considerations
       do not apply in wartime
   (4) establishing that high officials and individuals
       are responsible for their wartime actions
Answer: 4

36 The primary purpose for the creation of the
   United Nations was to
   (1) maintain an international army
   (2) promote peace through international
   (3) free Eastern European countries from
   (4) supply food to all member countries
Answer: 2

37 The major reason the United States became
   involved in the Korean War was the
   (1) threat of communism spreading throughout
   (2) need to prevent war between China and the
       Soviet Union
   (3) demand by the United States for Korean
       natural resources
   (4) desire to limit Japanese expansion
Answer: 1

38 During the 195os, the main goal of the civil rights
   movement was to
   (1) create separate African American economic
       and social institutions
   (2) eliminate legal segregation from American
   (3) establish affirmative action programs to
       compensate for past wrongs
   (4) form a new nation for African Americans
Answer: 2

39 Which event was a result of the other three?
   (1) sit-ins at whites-only lunch counters in
       Greensboro, North Carolina
   (2) Martin Luther King Jr.’s March on
       Washington, D. C.
   (3) signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
   (4) bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama
Answer: 3

40 … For the war against poverty will not be won
   here in Washington. It must be won in the field,
   in every private home, in every public office,
   from the courthouse to the White House.…
                          — President Lyndon B. Johnson,
              State of the Union Address, January 8, 1964
   This statement expresses President Lyndon B.
   Johnson’s view that the
   (1) federal government is solely responsible for
       the war on poverty
   (2) court system must be held accountable for
   (3) problem of poverty is easily solved
   (4) entire country must help fight poverty
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 41 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   Dear Mr. Barr,
   … This letter does not express all that is in my
   heart, Mr. Barr. But if it says nothing else it says
   that we do not hate you or rejoice to see your
   industry destroyed; we hate the agribusiness
   system [agricultural corporations] that seeks to
   keep us enslaved and we shall overcome and
   change it not by retaliation or bloodshed but by a
   determined nonviolent struggle carried on by
   those masses of farm workers who intend to be
   free and human.
   Sincerely yours,
   Cesar E. Chavez
                  — Cesar Chavez, letter to E.L. Barr Jr.,
                Good Friday, 1969, in Andrew Carroll, ed.,
                    Letters of a Nation, Broadway Books
41 Which action did Cesar Chavez take that is most
   consistent with the theme of this excerpt?
   (1) organizing a farmworkers union
   (2) calling for stricter enforcement of
       immigration laws
   (3) asking Congress to pass legislation for lowincome housing
   (4) promoting the takeover of large corporations
       by farmworkers
Answer: 1

42 One way in which the Supreme Court decisions
   in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright
   (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) are similar
   is that each decision
   (1) defined the rights of students in public
   (2) strengthened the role of the police in the
        arrest process
   (3) demonstrated the Court’s disapproval of
        increasing crime rates
   (4) expanded the constitutional rights of persons
        accused of crimes
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 43 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Rising farm costs are reducing profits.
   (2) Foreign competition has driven up farm
   (3) Farm production is failing to keep pace with
   (4) Farmers are losing profits due to drought.
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 44 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
44 Which statement best describes the main idea of
   the cartoon?
   (1) Iraq is using terrorism to end American
       military occupation.
   (2) Iraq is rejecting help from the United States
       against terrorists.
   (3) The United States and terrorists are
       competing to influence Iraq.
   (4) Iraq is catching up to the United States in the
       war on terror.
Answer: 3

45 Since 1970, what has been a significant economic
   trend in the United States?
   (1) decline in the number of working mothers in
       the labor force
   (2) shift in jobs from manufacturing to service
   (3) decrease in dependency on foreign oil
   (4) increase in federal budget surpluses
Answer: 2

46 The North American Free Trade Agreement
   (NAFTA) and the European Union (EU) both
   seek to expand trade within their organizations by
   (1) prohibiting imports from nonmember nations
   (2) creating a common currency and parliament
   (3) lowering tariffs and eliminating import quotas
       between member nations
   (4) forming military alliances
Answer: 3

47 “Congress Passes Alien and Sedition Acts’’
   “Lincoln Suspends Habeas Corpus’’
   “Wilson Signs 1918 Sedition Act”
   These headlines show that the federal
   government can
   (1) restrict citizens’ rights in times of crisis
   (2) raise armies without informing the public
   (3) station troops in a person’s home at any time
   (4) require citizens to be witnesses against
Answer: 1

48 The Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the
   Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and the Clayton
   Antitrust Act (1914) are similar in that they were
   intended to
   (1) reaffirm the federal government’s laissezfaire attitude toward big business
   (2) increase the federal government’s power to
       regulate business practices
   (3) authorize the breakup of labor unions
   (4) reject the use of trustbusting
Answer: 2

49 “Grant Administration Caught Up in Credit Mobilier
   “Harding’s Secretary of the Interior Indicted in Teapot
    Dome Investigation”
   “Iran-Contra Scandal Leads to Resignation of
    Reagan Advisor”
    Which conclusion can be drawn from these
    (1) American presidents are not subject to the
        nation’s laws.
    (2) Senate trials have been used to remove
        corrupt presidents.
    (3) Only Democratic presidents have been
        investigated for misdeeds.
    (4) Some presidents have been damaged by the
        actions of their aides.
Answer: 4

   Base your answer to question 50 on the
constitutional amendment below and on your
knowledge of social studies.
   Amendment XXV
   Section 1. In case of the removal of the
              President from office or of his
              death or resignation, the Vice
              President shall become President.
   Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the
              office of the Vice President, the
              President shall nominate a Vice
              President who shall take office
              upon confirmation by a majority
              vote of both Houses of Congress.
50 This amendment to the Constitution made it
   possible for
   (1) voters to elect Franklin D. Roosevelt to a
       fourth term as president in 1944
   (2) Gerald Ford to become president when
       Richard Nixon left office in 1974
   (3) the House of Representatives to impeach
       President Bill Clinton in 1998
   (4) the Supreme Court to rule on the counting of
       votes in Florida in the presidential election of
Answer: 2

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Diversity (Constitutional Rights)
                  Throughout United States history, Supreme Court decisions have addressed the
                  issue of the constitutional rights of various groups. These decisions have limited
                  or expanded the rights of members of these groups.
                  Identify two Supreme Court cases related to the rights of specific groups and for
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the case
                  • Explain the Supreme Court’s decision in the case
                  • Discuss how the Supreme Court decision limited or expanded the
                    constitutional rights of members of this group
            You may use any Supreme Court case from your study of United States history in which
        the Supreme Court addressed the issue of the constitutional rights of various groups. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include Worcester v. Georgia (1832), Dred Scott v.
        Sanford (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Korematsu v. United States (1944), Brown v. Board
        of Education of Topeka (1954), Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (1964), and Roe v. Wade
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              During the Cold War, world events and changing attitudes influenced the way that
              United States presidents dealt with the Soviet Union. Presidents John F. Kennedy,
              Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan each used various foreign policy approaches
              in dealing with the Soviet Union.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               • Discuss how the United States dealt with the Soviet Union during the
                 presidencies of John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
         … Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear
         any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival
         and the success of liberty.…
         Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary [rival], we offer not a
         pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark
         powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental
         We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond
         doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.
         But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present
         course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by
         the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of
         terror that stays the hand of mankind’s final war.
         So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and
         sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear
         to negotiate.
         Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which
         divide us.…
                                        Source: President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961
 1 According to President John F. Kennedy, what is one action the United States should take in dealing with
   its Cold War rivals? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 2
2 Based on this map, state one action ordered by President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban missile crisis.
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Document 3b
 … I speak of peace because of the new face of war.
 Total war makes no sense in an age when great
 powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable
 nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort
 to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a
 single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the
 explosive force delivered by all the allied air forces in
 the Second World War. It makes no sense in an age
 when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear
 exchange would be carried by wind and water and soil
 and seed to the far corners of the globe and to
 generations yet unborn.…
 In short, both the United States and its allies, and the
 Soviet Union and its allies, have a mutually deep
 interest in a just and genuine peace and in halting the
 arms race. Agreements to this end are in the interests
 of the Soviet Union as well as ours — and even the
 most hostile nations can be relied upon to accept and
 keep those treaty obligations, and only those treaty
 obligations, which are in their own interest.…
  Source: President John F. Kennedy, Commencement Address at
           American University, Washington, D.C., June 10, 1963
3 Based on these documents, what are two reasons the United States and the Soviet Union needed to address
  the issue of nuclear war? [2]
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Document 4
     … You have to give both [President Richard] Nixon and [National Security Advisor Henry]
     Kissinger the credit—Nixon because he is the president. It was his clear feeling that we ought to
     move toward China. I think that he also understood that because of his anti-communist
     credentials, it would be easier for him than, say, for [Senator] Hubert Humphrey. More
     importantly, he knew that China would become an important country; our approach to China
     would give the Soviet Union an incentive to have better relations with us, in that they might get
     a bit nervous about our dealings with the Chinese. Indeed, within months after the announcement
     of Kissinger’s secret trip, we had an agreement on a summit meeting with the Soviets, as well as
     a breakthrough on SALT [Strategic Arms Limitation Talks], and on the Berlin negotiations.
     Kissinger had, independently, come to the same conclusions, for the same reasons.…
                                                     Source: Winston Lord in Gerald S. and Deborah H. Strober,
                                                   Nixon: An Oral History of His Presidency, HarperCollins, 1994
4 According to Winston Lord, what are two ways the new United States policy toward China improved
  United States–Soviet relations? [2]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 5
      … Many of those who watched the week unfold in Moscow concluded that this summit—the
      most important since Potsdam in 1945 and probably the most important Soviet political event
      since Stalin’s death—could change world diplomacy. It was all the more impressive because it
      seemed not so much a single, cataclysmic [momentous] event but part of a process, part of a
      world on the move.…
      The meeting underscored [emphasized] the drive toward detente based on mutual selfinterest—
      especially economic self-interest on the part of the Soviets, who want trade and
      technology from the West. None of the agreements are shatterproof, and some will lead only to
      future bargaining. But the fact that they touched so many areas suggested Nixon’s strategy: he
      wanted to involve all of the Soviet leadership across the board—trade, health, science—in ways
      that would make it difficult later to reverse the trends set at the summit.…
                                           Source: “What Nixon Brings Home from Moscow,” Time, June 5, 1972
5 According to this document, why was the Moscow summit important to United States–Soviet relations? [1]
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Document 6
      … As far as our relations with the Soviets are concerned, we shall continue. We shall continue
      to negotiate, recognizing that they don’t like our system or approve of it and I don’t like their
      system or approve of it. Mr. Brezhnev [Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev] knows that, and I know
      it, and we have discussed it quite bluntly and directly.
      However, it is essential that both nations, being the super powers that we are, continue to make
      progress toward limiting arms, toward avoiding confrontations which might explode into war, as
      it might have in the Mideast if we had not had this period of negotiation, and also continuing
      those negotiations for reduction of forces in Europe and reduction of arms, or certainly the
      limitation of arms, and the various other initiatives that we are undertaking with the Soviets.
      In a nutshell, this is what we have to consider: Do we want to go back to a period when the
      United States and the Soviet Union, the two great super powers, stood in confrontation against
      each other and risk a runaway nuclear arms race and also crisis in Berlin, in the Mideast, even
      again in Southeast Asia or other places of the world, or do we want to continue on a path in which
      we recognize our differences but try to recognize also the fact that we must either live together
      or we will all die together?…
                                           Source: President Richard Nixon, Press Conference, February 25, 1974
6 According to President Richard Nixon, what is one reason the United States should continue its negotiations
  with the Soviet Union? [1]
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Document 7
     … Ronald Reagan entered office [the presidency] as the most emphatically anti-Soviet American
     chief executive since Harry Truman, who presided over the beginning of the Cold War. The
     Reagan administration was committed to stepping up the competition with the Soviet Union in
     the areas where the rivalry was sharpest. It orchestrated the most expensive peacetime military
     buildup in American history and began the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was designed to
     free the world from the nuclear stalemate in which each side’s society was hostage to the
     weapons of the other. But the Reagan years have demonstrated the limits to both policies. They
     have made it clear that the United States, like the Soviet Union, will have to settle for military
     equilibrium in the great power rivalry.…
                                        Source: Bialer and Mandelbaum, The Global Rivals, Alfred A. Knopf, 1988
7 According to Bialer and Mandelbaum, what was one action taken by the Reagan administration that
  demonstrated an anti-Soviet foreign policy? [1]
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60.  Document 8
… And now the Soviets themselves may, in a limited
way, be coming to understand the importance of
freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new
policy of reform and openness. Some political
prisoners have been released. Certain foreign news
broadcasts are no longer being jammed. Some
economic enterprises have been permitted to operate
with greater freedom from state control. Are these the
beginnings of profound changes in the Soviet state? Or
are they token gestures, intended to raise false hopes in
the West, or to strengthen the Soviet system without
changing it? We welcome change and openness; for we
believe that freedom and security go together, that the
advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause
of world peace.
There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be
unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the
cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary
Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for
the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek
liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev,
open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!…
                          Source: President Ronald Reagan,
                           speech at the Brandenburg Gate,
                                             June 12, 1987

 8a According to President Ronald Reagan, what is one action taken by the Soviet Union that indicates it may be reforming its policies? [1]
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61.  b According to President Ronald Reagan, what is one action that General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev should take to advance the
cause of freedom and peace? [1]
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Document 9
   This article was written by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev following the death of former President
Ronald Reagan on June 5, 2004.
       … Ronald Reagan’s first term as president had been dedicated to restoring America’s selfconfidence. 
       He appealed to the traditions and optimism of the people, to the American dream,
       and he regarded as his main task strengthening the economy and the military might of the
       United States. This was accompanied by confrontational rhetoric toward the Soviet Union, and
       more than rhetoric—by a number of actions that caused concern both in our country and among
       many people throughout the world. It seemed that the most important thing about Reagan was
       his anti-Communism and his reputation as a hawk who saw the Soviet Union as an “evil empire.”
       Yet his second term as president emphasized a different set of goals. I think he understood that
       it is the peacemakers, above all, who earn a place in history. This was consistent with his
       convictions based on experience, intuition and love of life. In this he was supported by Nancy—
       his wife and friend, whose role will, I am sure, be duly appreciated.…
       In the final outcome, our insistence on dialogue proved fully justified. At a White House
       ceremony in 1987, we signed the intermediate-range nuclear forces treaty, which launched the
       process of real arms reduction. And, even though we saw the road to a world free of nuclear
       weapons differently, the very fact of setting this goal in 1986 in Reykjavik [Iceland] helped to
       break the momentum of the arms race.…
                              Source: Mikhail Gorbachev, “A President Who Listened,” New York Times, June 7, 2004
 9 According to Mikhail Gorbachev, how did President Ronald Reagan’s attitude toward the Soviet Union
   change during his second term? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                During the Cold War, world events and changing attitudes influenced the way that
                United States presidents dealt with the Soviet Union. Presidents John F. Kennedy,
                Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan each used various foreign policy approaches
                in dealing with the Soviet Union.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                 • Discuss how the United States dealt with the Soviet Union during the
                   presidencies of John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents January 2011 Exam

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