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US History and Government - New York Regents January 2012 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 What is the best title for this map?
  (1) Eastward Migration                 (3) Territorial Expansion
  (2) Results of the Revolution          (4) Immigration Before the Civil War
Answer: 3

2.
2 Which geographic feature formed the western border of the United States in 1783?
  (1) Pacific Ocean                     (3) Great Lakes
  (2) Mississippi River                 (4) Rocky Mountains
Answer: 2

3.
3 The primary purpose of the Articles of
  Confederation was to
  (1) provide revenues for the national government
  (2) establish the basic framework of the national
      government
  (3) give the national government the power to
      regulate interstate commerce
  (4) guarantee a bill of rights to protect citizens
      from the national government
Answer: 2


4.
4 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established a
  model for later settlement by providing for the
  (1) legal expansion of slavery
  (2) creation of national parks
  (3) distribution of free land to war veterans
  (4) process for territories to become states
Answer: 4

5.
5 The writings of John Locke, Jean-Jacques
  Rousseau, and Baron de Montesquieu are
  significant in United States history because they
  (1) opposed the use of slave labor in the
      Americas
  (2) supported the absolute right of the king to
      impose taxes
  (3) encouraged the formation of political parties
      and political machines
  (4) influenced the authors of the Declaration of
      Independence and the Constitution
Answer: 4

6.
6 Which presidential action is an example of the
  use of the unwritten constitution?
  (1) holding a cabinet meeting at the White House
  (2) submitting a treaty to the Senate for
      ratification
  (3) nominating an ambassador to France
  (4) vetoing a bill passed by Congress
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which statement most accurately describes
  federalism?
  (1) The judicial branch of government has more
      power than the other two branches.
  (2) The president and vice president divide
      executive power.
  (3) Power is divided between the national
      government and the states.
  (4) Power is shared between the two houses of
      Congress.
Answer: 3

8.
8 On the issue of creating a national bank,
  Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and
  Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
  differed on whether to
  (1) apply a strict or loose interpretation of the
      Constitution
  (2) establish a tariff to raise revenue
  (3) use deposits to finance a new navy
  (4) issue loans to farmers
Answer: 1

9.
    Base your answer to question 9 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
9 Which statement regarding the United States
  Congress is best supported by the information in
  this cartoon?
  (1) Congress must meet at least once every year.
  (2) Members of the House of Representatives
      must be chosen every two years.
  (3) Each house of Congress must publish a
      journal of its proceedings.
  (4) Representation in the House of Representatives is based on state population.
Answer: 4

10.
10 What is a principle of government that is stated in
   the Preamble to the United States Constitution?
   (1) Federal laws must be subject to state approval.
   (2) The power of government comes from the
       people.
   (3) The right to bear arms shall not be infringed.
   (4) All men and women are created equal.
Answer: 2

11.
11 The outcome of the Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
   strengthened the authority of the
   (1) national government
   (2) state governors
   (3) territorial legislatures
   (4) local police
Answer: 1

12.
12 The War of 1812 has been called the “Second
   War for American Independence” primarily
   because the
   (1) British blocked United States access to the
       port of New Orleans
   (2) United States continued to resist taxes
       imposed by Great Britain
   (3) British government had never fully respected
       the United States as a free nation
   (4) United States and Great Britain had not signed
       a peace treaty after the Revolutionary War
Answer: 3

13.
13 The Erie Canal contributed to the development
   of the United States by
   (1) eliminating the need for railroads
   (2) linking the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast
   (3) becoming the major trade route to California
   (4) allowing southern planters to ship their
       cotton westward
Answer: 2

14.
14 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
I. _______
   A. Suspension of habeas corpus
   B. Signing of Emancipation Proclamation
   C. Election of President Lincoln to
      second term
(1)   Wartime Propaganda Campaigns
(2)   Limits on Civil Liberties During Wartime
(3)   Decreased Rights of Minorities
(4)   Events During the Civil War
Answer: 4

15.
15 Jim Crow laws passed in the South during the late
   180os were designed to
   (1) support civil rights for African Americans
   (2) create a system of legal segregation
   (3) give free land to formerly enslaved persons
   (4) compensate landowners for damage done
       during the Civil War
Answer: 2

16.
16 In the late 19th and early 2oth centuries, a major
   goal of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
   was to
   (1) end restrictions on child labor
   (2) admit women to the industrial workforce
   (3) improve wages and working conditions
   (4) join all workers into a single union
Answer: 3

17.
17 During the 189os, many American farmers tried
   to resolve their economic problems by
   (1) joining the Populist Party
   (2) staging violent protests against the
       government
   (3) supporting government aid to railroads
   (4) asking Congress to end agricultural subsidies
Answer: 1

18.
18 One way in which the Chinese Exclusion Act
   (1882) and the Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907)
   are similar is that they
   (1) reflected nativist attitudes in the United
       States
   (2) encouraged a policy of popular sovereignty
   (3) led to an increase in Asian immigration
   (4) eased requirements for citizenship
Answer: 1

19.
19 Which headline related to the Spanish-American
   War is an example of yellow journalism?
   (1) “President McKinley Asks Congress for War
        Declaration Against Spain”
   (2) “United States Mobilizes for War with Spain”
   (3) “United States Demands Response to Spanish
        Actions”
   (4) “Spanish Troops Slaughter Innocent Cuban
        Citizens”
Answer: 4


20.
Base your answers to questions 20 and 21 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
20 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by information on the map?
   (1) The United States respected the sovereignty of Latin American nations.
   (2) United States military action was used to protect American interests.
   (3) The United States rarely used its armed forces in Latin America before World War II.
   (4) United States military action in Latin America supported European colonies.
Answer: 2

21.
21 Which United States foreign policy was most often used to carry out the actions shown on
   the map?
   (1) Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
   (2) Wilson’s Fourteen Points
   (3) Kellogg-Briand Pact
   (4) Open Door
Answer: 1

22.
22 “…In other words, our demand is that big
   business give the people a square deal and that
   the people give a square deal to any man engaged
   in big business who honestly endeavors to do
   what is right and proper.…”
        — Theodore Roosevelt, “A Charter for Democracy,”
                                      February 21, 1912
   This statement reflects President Theodore
   Roosevelt’s position that the federal government
   should
   (1) leave regulation of big business to the states
   (2) cease regulation of business activities
   (3) regulate abusive business practices
   (4) seize control of all trusts
Answer: 3

23.
23 The Jungle, The Octopus, and The Shame of the
   Cities are all books that were written to
   (1) support the formation of a new political party
   (2) promote environmental conservation
   (3) encourage reform in business and government
   (4) express opinions concerning imperialism
Answer: 3

24.
24 The Federal Reserve System was created in 1913
   to
   (1) regulate the money supply
   (2) operate mints to coin money
   (3) collect tax revenues
   (4) protect deposits in savings banks
Answer: 1

25.
25 During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson
   used his wartime powers to
   (1) win passage of quota acts
   (2) grant all women the right to vote
   (3) expand freedom of the press
   (4) increase government control of the economy
Answer: 4

26.
26 The Senate’s opposition to United States
   membership in the League of Nations was based
   mainly on the
   (1) cost of membership dues
   (2) failure to give the United States veto power
   (3) fear of being drawn into future wars
   (4) concern that United States businesses would
       be damaged
Answer: 3

27.
27 The division in public opinion over the Scopes
   trial and Prohibition demonstrates which
   characteristic of the 192os?
   (1) discrimination against immigrants
   (2) clash of cultural values
   (3) fear of international communism
   (4) opposition to the Ku Klux Klan
Answer: 2

28.
28 During the 192os, much of the debt accumulated
   by consumers was due to
   (1) installment buying of manufactured goods
   (2) overproduction of farm products
   (3) long strikes by labor unions
   (4) rising income taxes
Answer: 1

29.
29 During the 193os, poor land management and
   severe drought conditions across parts of the
   Midwest resulted in the
   (1) formation of the United States Department
       of Agriculture
   (2) creation of wheat surpluses
   (3) growth of the Granger movement
   (4) development of Dust Bowl conditions on the
       Great Plains
Answer: 4

30.
30 What was the goal of President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt’s plan to add more justices to the
   Supreme Court?
   (1) to help the Supreme Court implement its
       decisions
   (2) to limit judicial opposition to New Deal
       programs
   (3) to convince Congress to enact new economic
       laws
   (4) to replace the Chief Justice of the Supreme
       Court
Answer: 2

31.
31 To help win World War II, the federal
   government found it necessary to
   (1) return to the gold standard
   (2) outlaw labor unions
   (3) impose rationing and price controls
   (4) integrate the military
Answer: 3

32.
    Base your answer to question 32 on the graph
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 The change in the rate of unemployment
   between 1941 and 1942 is best explained by the
   (1) response of President Herbert Hoover to the
       stock market crash
   (2) effects of the Wagner Act
   (3) passage of the National Recovery Act
   (4) entry of the United States into World War II
Answer: 4

33.
33 During World War II, Japanese Americans were
   sent to internment centers primarily because they
   (1) were considered illegal aliens
   (2) had been convicted of spying for Japan
   (3) refused to enlist in the United States military
   (4) were thought to be threats to national security
Answer: 4

34.
34 The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty
   Organization (NATO) illustrates a commitment
   to the concept of
   (1) colonialism         (3) mutual defense
   (2) isolationism        (4) human rights
Answer: 3


35.
35 In the years immediately following World War II,
   United States foreign policy was primarily
   focused on
   (1) securing peace in the Middle East
   (2) containing the spread of communism
   (3) sending volunteers to developing countries
   (4) maintaining neutrality in world conflicts
Answer: 2

36.
36 Between 1946 and 1954, the House Committee
   on Un-American Activities and Senator Joseph
   McCarthy attracted public attention by
   investigating
   (1) allegations of communist influences in
       government
   (2) civil rights violations against African Americans
   (3) corruption by companies in the defense
       industry
   (4) war crimes of German and Japanese officials
Answer: 1

37.
37 President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal
   troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 to
   (1) supervise local elections
   (2) enforce school integration
   (3) end a bus boycott
   (4) break up a steel strike
Answer: 2

38.
38 The Cuban missile crisis was effectively ended
   when the
   (1) Soviet Union agreed to withdraw weapons
       from Cuba
   (2) Bay of Pigs invasion removed Fidel Castro
       from power
   (3) Cuban authorities signed new trade agreements with the United States
   (4) United States announced the formation of
       the Alliance for Progress
Answer: 1

39.
39 A result of the publication of Rachel Carson’s
   Silent Spring was that the
   (1) Americans with Disabilities Act was passed
   (2) 1964 Civil Rights Act was passed
   (3) modern environmental movement gained
       support
   (4) consumer protection movement began
Answer: 3

40.
    Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the
letter below and on your knowledge of social studies.
40 Which event led to this letter being written?
   (1) Teapot Dome scandal
   (2) Kent State shootings
   (3) Iran-Contra affair
   (4) Watergate break-in
Answer: 4

41.
41 Which constitutional power was most directly
   responsible for the action taken in this letter?
   (1) power of Congress to override vetoes
   (2) power of the president to appoint justices to
       the Supreme Court
   (3) power of impeachment by the House of
       Representatives
   (4) power of the Senate to approve proposed
       treaties
Answer: 3

42.
42 Which concept is illustrated by United States
   participation in both the General Agreement on
   Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North
   American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
   (1) interdependence       (3) nationalism
   (2) appeasement           (4) nonalignment
Answer: 1

43.
    Base your answer to question 43 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 Which statement is best supported by
   information in the chart?
   (1) The candidate selected by a majority of the
       population won the presidency.
   (2) The popular vote is not the deciding factor in
       winning the presidency.
   (3) Candidates must campaign in all states to win
       a presidential election.
   (4) The electoral college system was abolished
       after this election.
Answer: 2

44.
    Base your answer to question 44 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …In the sixth year since our Nation was attacked,
   I wish I could report to you that the dangers have
   ended. They have not. And so it remains the
   policy of this Government to use every lawful and
   proper tool of intelligence, diplomacy, law
   enforcement, and military action to do our duty,
   to find these enemies, and to protect the
   American people.…
                           — President George W. Bush
44 Which event did President Bush refer to in this
   quotation?
   (1) Oklahoma City bombing on April 17, 1995
   (2) terrorist actions on September 11, 2001
   (3) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
   (4) start of Operation Iraqi Freedom
Answer: 2

45.
45 Which pair of events shows a correct cause-andeffect relationship?
   (1) Mexican War → Trail of Tears
   (2) Harlem Renaissance → Great Migration
   (3) increase in organized crime → adoption of
       national Prohibition
   (4) passage of Interstate Highway Act → increase
       in suburbanization
Answer: 4

46.
Base your answer to question 46 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.
46 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information in the time line?
   (1) Government intervention in the economy has limited the growth of the gross
       domestic product.
   (2) United States economic policies have been modified to meet changing conditions.
   (3) The United States government has shown little interest in regulating big business.
   (4) Most Americans are opposed to government intervention in the economy.
Answer: 2

47.
    Base your answer to question 47 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
47 This cartoonist is expressing a concern that the
   current Social Security system
   (1) imposes taxes which are too high
   (2) does not cover most American workers
   (3) faces threats from future increases in the
       number of recipients
   (4) does not support a decent standard of living
Answer: 3

48.
48 One way in which President Andrew Johnson and
   President Bill Clinton are similar is that both were
   (1) forced to fight an unpopular war
   (2) opposed to civil rights legislation
   (3) sworn into office after the assassination of a
       president
   (4) acquitted by the Senate after being impeached
Answer: 4

49.
49 Which statement illustrates the system of checks
   and balances?
   (1) The electoral college cast 435 votes for
       Woodrow Wilson in 1912.
   (2) President Harry Truman decided to remove
       General Douglas MacArthur as military
       commander in Korea.
   (3) The Senate rejected President Ronald
       Reagan’s nomination of Robert Bork to the
       Supreme Court.
   (4) Nancy Pelosi was elected as the first female
       Speaker of the House of Representatives in
       2007.
Answer: 3

50.
50 • Ralph Nader – Unsafe at Any Speed
   • Betty Friedan – The Feminine Mystique
   • Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein – All the
     President’s Men
   Which conclusion can best be drawn from the
   influence of these books?
   (1) Authors often increase public awareness of
       significant issues.
   (2) Writers often promote big business.
   (3) Literary works often ignore controversial issues.
   (4) Journalists often expose corrupt politicians.
Answer: 1


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Supreme Court decisions
                 Decisions of the United States Supreme Court have had a significant impact on
                 the nation.
        Task:
                 Identify two important United States Supreme Court cases and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the case
                 • Explain the Supreme Court’s decision
                 • Discuss the impact of the Court’s decision on the United States
           You may use any appropriate Supreme Court case. Some suggestions you might wish to
        consider include Marbury v. Madison (1803), Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Worcester v. Georgia
        (1832), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Schenck v. United States (1919), Korematsu v. United States
        (1944), Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), Miranda v. Arizona (1966),
        Roe v. Wade (1973), and New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Between 1800 and 1860, economic, social, and political factors contributed to the
              development of sectional differences between the North and the South. These
              differences included how best to expand the United States economy, the extension
              of slavery into the territories, and the relationship between the states and the
              federal government. These differences laid the groundwork for the Civil War.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                • Discuss the economic, political, and/or social differences between the North
                  and the South that eventually led to the Civil War
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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53.
Document 1c
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.

1 Based on these documents, state two differences between the economies of the North and the South before
  the Civil War. [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2a
    Agents of the American Anti-Slavery Society traveled throughout the United States to urge the abolition of
slavery.
       Dear Sir—You have been appointed an Agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society; …
       … Our object is, the overthrow of American slavery, the most atrocious and oppressive system
       of bondage that has ever existed in any country. We expect to accomplish this, mainly by showing
       to the public its true character and legitimate fruits [real effects], its contrariety [opposition] to
       the first principles of religion, morals, and humanity, and its special inconsistency with our
       pretensions [aims], as a free, humane, and enlightened people. In this way, by the force of truth,
       we expect to correct the common errors that prevail respecting slavery, and to produce a just
       public sentiment, which shall appeal both to the conscience and love of character, of our slaveholding
       fellow-citizens, and convince them that both their duty and their welfare require the
       immediate abolition of slavery.…
                       Source: Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and
                                                   Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844, American Historical Association, 1934
2a Based on this document, state one reason the American Anti-Slavery Society opposed slavery. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 2b
   Thomas R. Dew defended slavery in a debate in the Virginia legislature.
          According to the census of 1830, there were approximately 470,000 slaves in Virginia. The
      average value of each slave is about $200. Thus the total value of the slave population in Virginia
      in 1830 was $94,000,000. Allowing for the increase since, the present value of slaves in Virginia
      is about $100,000,000. The assessed value of all the houses and lands in the state amounts to
      $206,000,000. Do not these simple statistics speak volumes upon the subject? It is seriously
      recommended to the state of Virginia that she give up her slaves. In other words, Virginia is
      expected to sacrifice one-half of her total worth!
          It is, in truth, the slave labor in Virginia which gives value to the soil and to her economy.
      Take this away and you ruin her. Remove the slave population from the State and it is absolutely
      safe to say that on the day this happens, Virginia will become a “waste howling wilderness.” “The
      grass will be seen growing in the streets and the foxes peeping from their holes.”…
                          Source: Thomas R. Dew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature of 1831 and 1832,
                                      in Martin W. Sandler et al., The People Make a Nation, Allyn and Bacon, 1971
2b According to Thomas R. Dew, what is one reason slavery was important to Virginia? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
Document 3
                        Historian Eric Foner on the role of westward expansion
      Q: What is the relationship between slavery and westward expansion?
      A: … But the frontier also carried with it the expansion of slavery. The westward expansion of
         slavery was one of the most dynamic economic and social processes going on in this country.
         The westward expansion carried slavery down into the Southwest, into Mississippi, Alabama,
         crossing the Mississippi River into Louisiana. Finally, by the 1840’s, it was pouring into Texas.
         So the expansion of slavery, which became the major political question of the 1850’s, was not
         just a political issue. It was a fact of life that every American had experienced during this
         period.…
         Now, in the South, southern slave owners insisted that slavery was absolutely essential to that
         story of progress. Without slavery, you could not have civilization, they said. Slavery freed the
         upper class from the need to do manual labor, to worry about economic day-to-day realities,
         and therefore gave them the time and the intellectual ability to devote themselves to the arts
         and literature and mechanical advantages and inventions of all kinds. So that it was slavery
         itself which made the progress of civilization possible.…
                                         Source: Interview with Eric Foner, Africans in America, www.pbs.org/wgbh
3 According to Eric Foner, state one reason Southern slave owners supported the expansion of slavery into
  the West. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4
    In 1847, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution, written by Charles Sumner, opposing the war
with Mexico. This is an excerpt from the resolution.
           Resolved, That the present war with Mexico has its primary origin in the unconstitutional
       annexation to the United States of the foreign State of Texas, while the same was still at war with
       Mexico; that it was unconstitutionally commenced by the order of the President, to General
       Taylor, to take military possession of territory in dispute between the United States and Mexico,
       and in the occupation of Mexico; and that it is now waged ingloriously—by a powerful nation
       against a weak neighbor—unnecessarily and without just cause, at immense cost of treasure
       [money] and life, for the dismemberment of Mexico, and for the conquest of a portion of her
       territory, from which slavery has already been excluded, with the triple object of extending
       slavery, of strengthening the “Slave Power,” and of obtaining the control of the Free States,
       under the constitution of the United States.…
                                                                Source: Massachusetts House of Representatives
 4 According to this resolution, what is one reason the Massachusetts legislature was opposed to the
   Mexican War? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 5
   On January 29, 1850, Senator Henry Clay proposed a series of resolutions to settle “… all questions in
controversy between the free and the slave states.…” The list below contains excerpts from Clay’s speech.
                            Selected Proposals for the Compromise of 1850
       1 That California ought to be admitted into the Union without restriction as to the inclusion or
         exclusion of slavery.
       2 That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory
         acquired by the United States from the Republic of Mexico, it is not in the interest of Congress
         to pass a law either establishing or prohibiting it in the land acquired from Mexico.…
       5 That it is not wise to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia while slavery continues to
         exist in Maryland without the consent of that state, the consent of the people of the District,
         and without just payment to the owners of slaves within the District.
       6 That, however, it is wise to prohibit in the District of Columbia, the bringing-in of slaves from
         other states either to be used in the District or to be sold there for use in other states.
       7 That stronger provision ought to be made by law for the capture and return of slaves who
         may have escaped into any other state or territory in the Union.
       8 That Congress has no power to prohibit or prevent the trading of slaves between States. This
         depends completely on the laws of each individual state.
                                  Source: Martin W. Sandler et al., The People Make a Nation, Allyn and Bacon, 1971
5a Based on this document, what is one way these proposals favored the North? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
b Based on this document, what is one way these proposals favored the South? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 6
       … Slavery was not the only cause of North–South confrontation during the 183os and 184os.
       Ever since the passage in 1828 of the high protective tariff, dubbed by Southerners “The Tariff
       of Abominations,” the Southern states had been protesting not just its unfairness but also its
       illegality. They managed to get it reduced in 1832, though that was not enough for many South
       Carolinians who argued that an individual state, as a party to the original compact that created
       the Union, had the right to declare null and void within its borders a Federal law that it
       considered unconstitutional or unjust. On this basis a special state convention of South Carolina
       nullified the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832, banned the collection of duties within its borders and
       declared that any use of force by the Federal government would justify secession from the
       Union. The Northern majority in Congress voted the President additional powers to enforce
       collection of the revenues, but others successfully sought conciliatory [friendly] ways to avoid an
       irrevocable [unstoppable] collision on this issue and the immediate crisis was averted, although
       South Carolinians did not discard their secessionist arguments.…
                         Source: Batty and Parish, The Divided Union: The Story of the Great American War, 1861–65,
                                                                                       Salem House Publishers, 1987
6a According to Batty and Parish, what was one reaction by South Carolina to the passage of federal tariffs? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
b According to Batty and Parish, what was one Northern response to the actions taken by South Carolina
  regarding the tariff? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 7
   Confederate General John B. Gordon was a civilian-turned-soldier who became one of General
Robert E. Lee’s most trusted commanders.
      … The South maintained with the depth of religious conviction that the Union formed under
      the Constitution was a Union of consent and not of force; that the original States were not the
      creatures but the creators of the Union; that these States had gained their independence, their
      freedom, and their sovereignty from the mother country, and had not surrendered these on
      entering the Union; that by the express terms of the Constitution all rights and powers not
      delegated were reserved to the States; and the South challenged the North to find one trace of
      authority in that Constitution for invading and coercing a sovereign State.
      The North, on the other hand, maintained with the utmost confidence in the correctness of her
      position that the Union formed under the Constitution was intended to be perpetual; that
      sovereignty was a unit and could not be divided; that whether or not there was any express power
      granted in the Constitution for invading a State, the right of self-preservation was inherent in all
      governments; that the life of the Union was essential to the life of liberty; or, in the words of
      Webster, “liberty and union are one and inseparable.”…
                             Source: John B. Gordon, Reminiscences of the Civil War, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1904
7a According to John B. Gordon, what was the Southern point of view regarding the power of states under the
   Constitution? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
b According to John B. Gordon, what was the Northern point of view regarding the Union created under the
  Constitution? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Document 8
8 Based on this map, why was Abraham Lincoln considered a sectional president? [1]
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65.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Between 1800 and 1860, economic, social, and political factors contributed to the
                development of sectional differences between the North and the South. These
                differences included how best to expand the United States economy, the extension
                of slavery into the territories, and the relationship between the states and the
                federal government. These differences laid the groundwork for the Civil War.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  • Discuss the economic, political, and/or social differences between the North
                    and the South that eventually led to the Civil War
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents January 2012 Exam


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