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US History and Government - New York Regents January 2013 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 Which geographic factor most directly influenced
  the location of the first English settlements in
  North America?
  (1) rivers along the Atlantic coast
  (2) availability of flat land in the Midwest
  (3) mild climate along the Gulf coast
  (4) forests throughout the Middle Colonies
Answer: 1

2 The Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights
  were significant influences on United States
  constitutional development because they
  (1) provided suffrage for all men and women
  (2) placed limits on the powers of the
  (3) called for the abolition of slavery
  (4) supported the development of federalism
Answer: 2

3 The Declaration of Independence contains a
  (1) proposal for reuniting the colonies and
  (2) statement of grievances against the King of
  (3) request for a treaty between the colonies and
  (4) plan for organizing the western territories
Answer: 2

4 Which set of events related to early America is in
  the correct chronological order?
  (1) inauguration of George Washington →
      passage of Stamp Act → Battle of Saratoga →
      French and Indian War
  (2) Battle of Saratoga → French and Indian War →
      passage of Stamp Act → inauguration of
      George Washington
  (3) French and Indian War → passage of Stamp
      Act → Battle of Saratoga → inauguration of
      George Washington
  (4) passage of Stamp Act → French and Indian
      War → inauguration of George Washington →
      Battle of Saratoga
Answer: 3

5 Critics of the Articles of Confederation argued
  that it
  (1) imposed unfair taxes on the states
  (2) used a draft to raise a national army
  (3) provided a strong system of federal courts
  (4) placed too much power in the hands of the
Answer: 4

6 “… Article 6. There shall be neither slavery nor
  involuntary servitude in the said territory,
  otherwise than in the punishment of crimes
  whereof the party shall have been duly convicted:
  Provided, always, That any person escaping into
  the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully
  claimed in any one of the original States, such
  fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed
  to the person claiming his or her labor or service
  as aforesaid.…”
                         — Northwest Ordinance, 1787
  Based on this excerpt from the Northwest
  Ordinance, which statement is a valid
  (1) The issue of slavery was largely ignored
      before the Civil War.
  (2) Abolitionists had gained control of the
      Constitutional Convention.
  (3) Slavery was legally banned in the Northwest
  (4) Enslaved persons had constitutionally
      protected civil rights.
Answer: 3

7 The Great Compromise enabled delegates at the
  Constitutional Convention (1787) to
  (1) establish the principle of popular sovereignty
      in the territories
  (2) give Congress the exclusive right to declare
      war if the nation is attacked
  (3) protect the interests of states with small
      populations and states with large populations
  (4) provide for the indirect election of the
      president through the electoral college
Answer: 3

8 Which presidential action is an example of the
  use of the unwritten constitution?
  (1) signing a law passed by Congress
  (2) calling a meeting of the cabinet
  (3) ordering the navy to patrol the Persian Gulf
  (4) nominating a federal court judge
Answer: 2

9 The major benefit of having the elastic clause in
  the United States Constitution is that it
  (1) allows the government to respond to
      changing conditions
  (2) protects the rights of racial minorities
  (3) prevents one branch of government from
      becoming too powerful
  (4) establishes a postal service
Answer: 1

10 How did Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan
   affect the economy of the United States during
   the 179os?
   (1) National tax revenues decreased.
   (2) High tariffs increased foreign trade.
   (3) Treasury policies contributed to widespread
   (4) The newly created Bank of the United States
       helped stabilize the economy.
Answer: 4

11 One result of the purchase of the Louisiana
   Territory (1803) was that the United States
   (1) acquired California from Spain
   (2) gained control of the port of New Orleans
   (3) ended border conflicts with British Canada
   (4) annexed Florida
Answer: 2

12 The decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) was
   significant because it established that the
   Supreme Court
   (1) had limited powers over state courts
   (2) had the power to choose its own members
   (3) could declare a federal law unconstitutional
   (4) could impeach the president and other
       government officials
Answer: 3

13 The constitutional controversy that led directly to
   the start of the Civil War concerned the right of
   states to
   (1) control tariff rates
   (2) sign treaties with foreign nations
   (3) redraw congressional districts
   (4) secede from the Union
Answer: 4

14 Which group benefited most directly from the
   Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford
   (1) abolitionists        (3) slave owners
   (2) immigrants           (4) enslaved persons
Answer: 3

15 Which title best completes the partial outline
     I. _______
        A. California Gold Rush (1849)
        B. Homestead Act (1862)
        C. Completion of transcontinental
           railroad (1869)
   (1) Factors Encouraging Westward Settlement
   (2) Government-Sponsored Transportation Programs
   (3) Recognition of Native American Indian Land
   (4) Actions Promoting the Conservation of
       Natural Resources
Answer: 1

   Base your answer to question 16 on the passage
from the trial transcript below and on your
knowledge of social studies.
   … MISS ANTHONY: When I was brought before
   your honor for trial, I hoped for a broad and
   liberal interpretation of the Constitution and its
   recent amendments, that should declare all
   United States citizens under its protecting aegis
   [shield]—that should declare equality of rights
   the national guarantee to all persons born or
   naturalized in the United States. But failing to
   get this justice—failing, even, to get a trial by a
   jury not of my peers—I ask not leniency at your
   hands—but rather the full rigors of the law.…
          Source: United States v. Susan B. Anthony, 1873
16 The constitutional amendments referred to in
   this statement were ratified to
   (1) end the importation of slaves
   (2) increase federal revenue
   (3) institute national Prohibition
   (4) provide legal rights to African Americans
Answer: 4

17 Which statement best describes how the status of
   African Americans in the South changed soon
   after the end of Reconstruction in 1877?
   (1) The Supreme Court consistently supported
       civil rights for African Americans.
   (2) Poll taxes and literacy tests were eliminated
       for African Americans.
   (3) Increasing numbers of African Americans
       were elected to public office.
   (4) African Americans faced increasing discrimination and segregation.
Answer: 4

18 The theory of laissez-faire economics was used
   during the late 180os to
   (1) justify unregulated business growth
   (2) call for more consumer protection
   (3) support Progressive programs
   (4) achieve equal distribution of income
Answer: 1

    Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: The best way to prevent corruption in
           government is to allow citizens a direct
           role in the legislative process.
Speaker B: Breaking up trusts and monopolies will
           increase business competition.
Speaker C: An important goal of the federal
           government should be the protection of
           our natural resources.
Speaker D: Government will only improve when
           women are granted full suffrage.
19 Which speaker’s statement is most directly
   related to the political concepts of initiative,
   referendum, and recall?
   (1) A                    (3) C
   (2) B                    (4) D
Answer: 1

20 Which two speakers’ viewpoints reflect actions
   taken by Theodore Roosevelt when he was
   president (1901–1909)?
   (1) A and B             (3) C and D
   (2) B and C             (4) D and A
Answer: 2

21 The term muckraker was used in the early 190os
   to describe writers who
   (1) supported limits on government regulation
   (2) exposed abuses in American society
   (3) wanted the United States to ban all immigration
   (4) promoted racial integration efforts
Answer: 2

22 In the early 190os, the United States proposed
   the Open Door policy to
   (1) gain new colonies in the Pacific
   (2) win support for building the Panama Canal
   (3) improve relations with Europe
   (4) secure access to markets in China
Answer: 4

23 Which title best completes the partial outline
     I. _______
        A. No government without consent
           of the governed
        B. High cost of defending territories
           outside the United States
        C. United States tradition of noninvolvement
   (1)   America’s New Immigration Policy
   (2)   Reasons for Overseas Expansion
   (3)   Causes of the Spanish-American War
   (4)   Arguments Opposing Imperialism
Answer: 4

24 The Federal Reserve System was created in 1913
   (1) authorize Congress to set interest rates
   (2) regulate the nation’s money supply
   (3) allow the government to own the nation’s
   (4) take over the responsibility of printing money
Answer: 2

Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 Which generalization about labor unions in the United States is most clearly supported
   by information on the map?
   (1) The federal government supported labor union activities.
   (2) Strikes by labor unions were often suppressed by government actions.
   (3) Labor union membership was limited to mine workers.
   (4) State governments offered to arbitrate labor disputes.
Answer: 2

26 Which was the first labor strike to end with the president intervening on behalf of the
   (1) 1886 Haymarket Affair                 (3) 1902 Anthracite Coal Strike
   (2) 1894 Pullman Strike                   (4) 1912 Textile Strike
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 27 on the posters
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
27 The United States government published these
   World War I posters to encourage Americans to
   (1) increase military enlistments
   (2) reduce the use of consumer goods
   (3) invest in the war effort
   (4) conserve scarce resources for the military
Answer: 3

28 After World War I, one way in which the Red
   Scare, the passing of the Quota Acts, and the
   growth of the Ku Klux Klan were similar is that
   they all
   (1) exploited fears about people who were
       considered un-American
   (2) encouraged the assimilation of new immigrants
       into American society
   (3) supported the goals of the suffrage movement
   (4) exhibited prejudice against African Americans
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 29 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
29 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by
   the information in the chart?
   (1) President Herbert Hoover’s economic
       policies expanded job opportunities.
   (2) The United States unemployment rate
       reached its highest level in 1938.
   (3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal
       programs failed to address the unemployment
   (4) World War II ended the high unemployment
       rates of the Great Depression.
Answer: 4

30 As part of the New Deal, the Securities and
   Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal
   Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) were
   created to
   (1) allow for a quick recovery of stock prices
   (2) provide direct loans to businesses
   (3) protect individual investors from stock fraud
       and bank failure
   (4) allow banks and companies to invest in the
       stock market
Answer: 3

31 Senator Huey Long, Dr. Francis Townsend, and
   Father Charles Coughlin are best known as
   (1) members of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s
   (2) outspoken critics of President Franklin D.
       Roosevelt’s New Deal
   (3) supporters of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s
       reelection campaign in 1940
   (4) members of the Supreme Court nominated
       by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Answer: 2

32 The “cash and carry” policy and the Lend-Lease
   Act were used by the United States to
   (1) help fund League of Nations efforts to
       maintain peace
   (2) encourage British appeasement of Germany
   (3) fulfill treaty obligations with Great Britain
       and France
   (4) provide support for the Allies in World War II
       without entering the war
Answer: 4

33 President Franklin D. Roosevelt referred to
   December 7, 1941, as “a date which will live in
   infamy” because on that day
   (1) Germany invaded Poland
   (2) Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
   (3) Italy declared war on the United States
   (4) the United States dropped an atomic bomb
       on Hiroshima
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 34 on the postcard
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 Which constitutional amendment was adopted in
   response to the issue raised on this postcard?
   (1) graduated income tax
   (2) direct election of United States senators
   (3) ban on poll taxes in presidential elections
   (4) limit on the number of years a president can
Answer: 4

35 In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the
   Supreme Court upheld the military order
   excluding Japanese Americans from the West
   Coast on the basis that the action was considered
   (1) a matter of national security
   (2) a necessity for the economy
   (3) an attempt to limit immigration from Japan
   (4) a way to protect Japanese Americans from
       anti-Japanese hysteria
Answer: 1

    Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social
36 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   main idea of the cartoon?
   (1) American taxpayers hope the Marshall Plan
       will quickly stabilize Europe’s economy.
   (2) The Marshall Plan will limit Europe’s
       economic recovery.
   (3) Europe will not take advantage of the
       Marshall Plan.
   (4) The Marshall Plan will bankrupt the
       American taxpayer.
Answer: 1

37 The United States undertook the action shown in
   the cartoon primarily to
   (1) keep the Soviet Union from developing
       atomic weapons
   (2) prevent Adolf Hitler from returning to power
       in Germany
   (3) stop the spread of communism in Western
   (4) force Soviet satellite countries to break away
       from Soviet control
Answer: 3

    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the
quotation below and on your knowledge of social
   … We dare not forget today that we are the heirs
   of that first revolution. Let the word go forth
   from this time and place, to friend and foe alike,
   that the torch has been passed to a new
   generation of Americans—born in this century,
   tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter
   peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and
   unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing
   of those human rights to which this nation has
   always been committed, and to which we are
   committed today at home and around the
   To those people in the huts and villages of half
   the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass
   misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them
   help themselves, for whatever period is
   required—not because the communists may be
   doing it, not because we seek their votes, but
   because it is right. If a free society cannot help
   the many who are poor, it cannot save the few
   who are rich.…
          — President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address,
                                         January 20, 1961
38 According to this quotation, President Kennedy
   wanted to
   (1) assert United States leadership in world
   (2) follow a policy of neutrality
   (3) adopt appeasement as a foreign policy
   (4) abandon the policy of containment
Answer: 1

39 Which foreign policy action by President
   Kennedy was intended to relieve the human
   suffering described in this quotation?
   (1) creating the Peace Corps
   (2) authorizing a naval blockade of Cuba
   (3) meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
       in Vienna
   (4) negotiating the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Answer: 1

40 A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s
   Great Society program was to
   (1) expand foreign aid
   (2) eliminate poverty
   (3) win the Vietnam War
   (4) promote space exploration
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 41 on the
newspaper headlines below and on your knowledge
of social studies.
41 Which constitutional provision is most clearly
   illustrated by these headlines?
   (1) presidential power
   (2) qualifications to be president
   (3) presidential succession
   (4) advice and consent of the Senate
Answer: 3

42 “… There is one sign the Soviets can make that
   would be unmistakable, that would advance
   dramatically the cause of freedom and peace.
   General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace,
   if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and
   Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come
   here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate!
   Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!…”
               — President Ronald Reagan, June 12, 1987
   President Reagan was calling for the end of the
   (1) nuclear arms race
   (2) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
   (3) division of Berlin, Germany
   (4) Warsaw Pact
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 43 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 What was one result of the boycott called for on
   the poster?
   (1) The sale of lettuce and grapes increased.
   (2) The power of large landowners over their
       laborers grew.
   (3) Federal troops were sent to suppress violence
       on farms in the West.
   (4) Public support for the goals of farmworkers
Answer: 4

Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the graphs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
44 Which conclusion is best supported by the information on these graphs?
   (1) More nations produce energy than consume it.
   (2) South American nations are the greatest producers of energy.
   (3) Nations that produce the most energy are the richest nations in the world.
   (4) The United States uses more energy than it produces.
Answer: 4

45 One result of the situation shown on the graphs is that the United States
   (1) must consider its need for energy when making foreign policy decisions
   (2) relies mainly on European nations for its energy
   (3) leads the world in the production of oil and steel
   (4) must find markets for its surplus energy
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 46 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                        Source: Jim Morin, Miami Herald, in New York Times, September 10, 1989
      46 Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of the cartoon?
         (1) Successive presidents have failed to deal effectively with illegal drug use.
         (2) These presidents were successful in fighting the war on drugs.
         (3) The war on drugs was the major domestic concern of these presidents.
         (4) Many presidents have proposed legislation to decriminalize illegal drugs.
Answer: 1

47 What was the central issue in both the John Peter
   Zenger case (1734–1735) and the controversy
   over the Pentagon Papers (1971)?
   (1) right to bear arms    (3) freedom of the press
   (2) freedom of religion (4) right to counsel
Answer: 3

48 “Convention Meets at Seneca Falls”
   “19th Amendment Ratified”
   “Betty Friedan Organizes National Organization for
   Which statement about women in the United
   States is best illustrated by these headlines?
   (1) The role of women in society has remained
       unchanged since colonial times.
   (2) The struggle for women’s rights has spanned
       many decades.
   (3) The earnings of women today are equal to
       those of men.
   (4) The movement for women’s rights has lacked
Answer: 2

49 One way in which the Hayes-Tilden election of
   1876 and the Bush-Gore election of 2000 are
   similar is that in each election the winner was
   (1) selected by the state legislatures
   (2) elected without a majority of the popular vote
   (3) aided by a third-party candidate
   (4) chosen by the United States Supreme Court
Answer: 2

50 • Theodore Roosevelt mediates adoption of the
     Treaty of Portsmouth.
   • Richard Nixon visits China.
   • Bill Clinton supports peace accords in Northern
   These actions are examples of various presidents
   acting as
   (1) chief diplomat
   (2) head of party
   (3) chief legislator
   (4) commander in chief
Answer: 1

           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Government (Congressional Legislation)
                 Throughout United States history, Congress has passed legislation to address
                 important political, social, or economic issues. These laws have often had a
                 significant impact on American society.
                 Select two laws passed by the United States Congress and for each
                 • Discuss the historical circumstances that led to the passage of the law
                 • Discuss the impacts of the law on American society
            You may use any federal law that was intended to address an important issue from your
        study of United States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include:
            Embargo Act (1807)                      Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
            Indian Removal Act (1830)               Social Security Act (1935)
            Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)              GI Bill/Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944)
            Interstate Commerce Act (1887)          Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                            You may not discuss constitutional amendments.
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                   Part III
                                   DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              After World War II, the American people looked forward to a period of peace and
              prosperity. However, key events of the 195os challenged that national mood and had
              significant social, economic, and political effects on the United States in the 196os and
              beyond. These events included the Korean War, the Montgomery bus boycott,
              and the launching of Sputnik.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two events of the 195os identified in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the event
                • Discuss the effects of the event on the United States and/or on American
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Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
           In [South] Korea the Government forces, which were armed to prevent border raids and to
       preserve internal security, were attacked by invading forces from North Korea. The Security
       Council of the United Nations called upon the invading troops to cease hostilities and to
       withdraw to the 38th parallel. This they have not done, but on the contrary have pressed the
       attack. The Security Council called upon all members of the United Nations to render every
       assistance to the United Nations in the execution of this resolution. In these circumstances I
       have ordered United States air and sea forces to give the Korean Government troops cover and
                                Source: President Harry Truman, Statement on the Situation in Korea, June 27, 1950
 1 According to President Harry Truman, what was one reason he ordered United States forces to support
   South Korean government troops in 1950? [1]
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2 Based on these documents, what were two effects of the Korean War on the United States? [2]
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Document 3
      … Complaints from African-American soldiers about Army racism led the NAACP [National
      Association for the Advancement of Colored People] to send civil rights activist and lawyer
      Thurgood Marshall to Korea in early 1951 to investigate. Marshall discovered that the Twenty
      Fourth Infantry Regiment was the target of a disproportional amount of courts martial, and that
      the punishments meted [handed] out were much harsher than those given to non-African
      Americans. In his report, entitled ‘Summary Justice: The Negro GI in Korea’, Marshall
      underlined the fact that institutionalized segregation was responsible for much of the unfair
      treatment of black troops in Korea.…
          The Korean War thus provided the crisis that finally pushed a reluctant Army to begin
      implementing policy recommendations made in [President Harry Truman’s] Executive Order
      9981. Policies which had been articulated [stated] earlier in the Cold War were now put into
      practice. Desegregation in the forces did not end discrimination, but it represented an important
      step towards greater equality for African Americans. The experiences of African-American
      soldiers in Korea thus benefitted from, and contributed to, the broader domestic movement for
      greater racial equality.…
                                      Source: Steven Hugh Lee, The Korean War, Pearson Education Limited, 2001
3a According to Steven Hugh Lee, what did Thurgood Marshall discover about the treatment of African
   American soldiers in Korea? [1]
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b According to Steven Hugh Lee, what was one effect of the Korean War on American society? [1]
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Document 4
   Inez Jessie Baskin comments on her experience using the bus system in Montgomery, Alabama, before the
bus boycott that started in December 1955.
       … I took the bus to work every day. Our bus system was segregated just like practically
       everything else. There was no specific line of demarcation separating seats reserved for white
       and black passengers. It was usually at the bus driver’s discretion, and it varied depending on
       time of day and the driver, but you were just supposed to know. One thing was for certain, when
       a white person occupied a seat, even if it was one man to an entire long seat, blacks had to walk
       right on past. About six o’clock one evening, I received a phone call from a friend’s mother telling
       me to go to the Dexter Avenue Church. That’s where I heard about Rosa Parks’s arrest. I had
       first met Rosa Parks during the time that I was a member of the NAACP. She had always
       impressed me. She was just an angel walking. When things happened that would upset most
       people, she would just give you this angelic smile, and that was the end of that. When I arrived,
       a small group of people were gathered in the church basement, and they were already talking
       about boycotting the local bus system and spreading some leaflets around about it.…
                                                     Source: Jennings and Brewster, The Century, Doubleday, 1998
 4 According to Inez Jessie Baskin, why were African Americans unhappy with the Montgomery bus system? [1]
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5 Based on these documents, what were two effects of the Montgomery bus boycott on Montgomery,
  Alabama? [2]
Document 5a
  During the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, many African American residents carpooled to work.
Document 5b
     … Officials of the Montgomery City Lines, a subsidiary of National City Lines of Chicago have
     declined to say publicly how the boycott has affected the company financially. But a 50 per cent
     increase in bus fares—from 10 to 15 cents—and curtailed operations have offset the loss of
     business to some extent.
     Before the boycott began last Dec. 5, approximately 65 per cent of the bus lines’ passengers were
     Negroes [African Americans]. Since then, an estimated 75 per cent or more of the Negro
     customers have stopped riding.
     Car pools operating with military precision have been organized to get Negroes to and from
     work. Negro taxicabs have done a thriving business. Police Commissioner Clyde Sellers says
     many Negroes have complained they are threatened with harm if they rode the buses.…
     Negro leaders led by a 27-year-old Baptist minister, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., demanded
     a “first come, first serve” arrangement which would seat Negroes from the rear and white
     passengers from the front until all seats were taken.
     Under the present arrangement, the dividing line is determined by the driver. Bus company
     officials rejected the “first come” proposal.…
                                                   Source: Montgomery Advertiser, February 19, 1956 (adapted)
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Document 6a
     … The idea so long cherished by Southern whites—and by many Northerners too—that the
     Southern Negro (whether through ignorance or intimidation or a shrewd recognition of reality)
     was content with the way things were, that only a handful of agitators opposed the system of
     segregation, was swept aside by the mass marches, demonstrations, meetings. Montgomery had
     been the first sign of this, and now it was made clear beyond argument that Negroes all across
     the South had only been waiting for an opportunity to end their long silence.…
         The sit-ins were an important learning experience for white Southerners, and also for those
     Northerners who were convinced of some mystical, irremovable germ of prejudice in the
     Southern mind: when the first lunch-counters were desegregated, the world did not come to an
     end. Whites and Negroes could use public facilities together, it was shown, without violent
     repercussions, without white withdrawal. Southern whites, once a new pattern became accepted
     and established in the community, would conform to it as they conformed to the old. Men and
     women seeking a sandwich at a lunch counter, as young Negroes could see readily in many of
     the sit-ins, were more interested in satisfying their hunger or their thirst than in who sat next to
     them. After two months of desegregation in Winston Salem, North Carolina, the manager of a
     large store said: “You would think it had been going on for fifty years. I am tickled to death over
     the situation.”…
                                               Source: Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists, Beacon Press
Document 6b
  College students at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.
6 Based on these documents, what was one effect of the Montgomery bus boycott on American society? [1]
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Document 7
          Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev [Soviet leader] was almost desperate to beat the
      Americanskis at something. Anything. He boasted that communism would bury capitalism, later
      claiming he meant only by becoming richer and more productive, not by engaging in war. But
      how long might that take? Fifty years? A hundred? He needed something now. And in the
      summer of 1955, at about the time he returned from the Geneva conference, where [President
      Dwight] Eisenhower had urged the Open Skies proposal on him, some of Khrushchev’s scientific
      advisers informed him of an interesting development.
          In the course of reading American science journals, they had learned that the United States
      had begun a project to put an artificial satellite into orbit in 1958, as part of its contribution to
      the International Geophysical Year. An orbiting satellite had obvious military possibilities, but
      the foolish Americans had decided not to make it a military project—they wanted it to be
      peaceful and scientific. We can beat them to it, the scientists told Khrushchev, because we’re
      already developing the rocket.
          The Soviet Union’s hydrogen bomb was enormous, and in 1955 its engineers and technicians
      were working on the design of a huge liquid-fueled rocket powerful enough to carry it five
      thousand miles. With some modifications, said the scientists, we can use the rocket to put a small
      satellite into orbit long before it will be ready to carry an H-bomb. Khrushchev saw a possibility
      here that nobody in Washington had seen—the chance to score the propaganda coup of the
      century. The Soviet satellite, code-named Sputnik (“Fellow Traveler”), got his enthusiastic
      “Da!” [Yes!]…
                                              Source: Geoffrey Perret, Eisenhower, Random House, 1999 (adapted)
7 According to Geoffrey Perret, what was one reason the Soviet Union was interested in putting a satellite into
  orbit? [1]
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Document 8
    On September 2, 1958, less than a year after the launching of Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower signed
into law the National Defense Education Act (NDEA).
       … Between 1958 and 1968, NDEA also provided loan money for more than 1.5 million
       individual college students—fellowships directly responsible for producing 15,000 Ph.D.s a year.
       NDEA allocated approximately $1 billion to support research and education in the sciences over
       four years; federal support for science-related research and education increased between 21 and
       33 percent per year through 1964, representing a tripling of science research and education
       expenditures over five years. States were given money to strengthen schools on a fifty-fifty
       matching basis, thousands of teachers were sent to NDEA-sponsored summer schools, and the
       National Science Foundation sponsored no fewer than fifty-three curriculum development
       projects. By the time of the lunar landing in 1969, NDEA alone had pumped $3 billion into
       American education.…
                         Source: Paul Dickson, Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Walker Publishing Company, 2001
 8 According to Paul Dickson, what were two effects of the launching of Sputnik on education in the United
   States? [2]
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Document 9
     … First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade
     is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space
     project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range
     exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to
     accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. We propose to develop
     alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain
     which is superior. We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned
     explorations—explorations which are particularly important for one purpose which this nation
     will never overlook: the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight. But in a very real
     sense, it will not be one man going to the moon—if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will
     be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.…
     Third, an additional 50 million dollars will make the most of our present leadership, by
     accelerating the use of space satellites for world-wide communications.
     Fourth, an additional 75 million dollars—of which 53 million dollars is for the Weather
     Bureau—will help give us at the earliest possible time a satellite system for world-wide weather
                                  Source: President John F. Kennedy, Special Message to Congress, May 25, 1961
9 According to President John F. Kennedy, why was spending money on space projects important for the
  United States? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                After World War II, the American people looked forward to a period of peace and
                prosperity. However, key events of the 195os challenged that national mood and had
                significant social, economic, and political effects on the United States in the 196os and
                beyond. These events included the Korean War, the Montgomery bus boycott,
                and the launching of Sputnik.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two events of the 195os identified in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the event
                  • Discuss the effects of the event on the United States and/or on American
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents January 2013 Exam

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