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US History and Government - New York Regents June 2015 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
Base your answer to question 1 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of the cartoon?
  (1) Water pollution threatens public health.
  (2) Farmers fail to understand the water needs of cities.
  (3) Urban development has used all the water needed for farming.
  (4) Conflict is growing over the distribution of scarce water resources.
Answer: 4

2.
2 Which title best completes the partial outline
  below?
(1) Developments in Colonial Self-Government
(2) Colonial Efforts to Abandon British Rule
(3) Attempts by Colonial Leaders to Form a
    National Government
(4) Colonial Organizations Established by the
    British Parliament
Answer: 1

3.
3 One way that the British government carried out
  the policy of mercantilism was by
  (1) promoting free trade between its colonies
      and Europe
  (2) prohibiting the transatlantic trade in enslaved
      Africans
  (3) encouraging the development of colonial
      manufacturing and trade
  (4) requiring that most colonial trade occur within
      the British Empire
Answer: 4


4.
 4 Thomas Jefferson incorporated John Locke’s idea
   of the social contract theory in the Declaration of
   Independence because this idea
   (1) justified the overthrow of a government that
       denied individual liberties
   (2) considered economic rights more important
       than inalienable rights
   (3) supported the divine right of kings
   (4) called for a gradual change of government
    Base your answer to question 5 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …As to government matters, it is not in the power
   of Britain to do this continent justice: the business
   of it will soon be too weighty and intricate to be
   managed with any tolerable degree of convenience,
   by a power so distant from us, and so very ignorant
   of us; for if they cannot conquer us, they cannot
   govern us. To be always running three or four
   thousand miles with a tale or a petition, waiting
   four or five months for an answer, which, when
   obtained, requires five or six more to explain it in,
   will in a few years be looked upon as folly and
   childishness. There was a time when it was proper,
   and there is a proper time for it to cease.…
                  — Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
Answer: 1

5.
5 What is the main argument Thomas Paine makes
  concerning the relationship between Great
  Britain and its American colonies?
  (1) Britain wants to make America a part of the
      European continental system.
  (2) America is too distant for Great Britain to
      govern effectively.
  (3) America lacks representation in Parliament.
  (4) American colonial leaders believe British
      officials want to use them to fight European
      wars.
Answer: 2

6.
6 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the
  Great Compromise between the large states and
  the small states resulted in
  (1) the creation of a bicameral legislature
  (2) a provision for equal protection of the laws
  (3) a permanent solution to the slavery issue
  (4) the guarantee of voting rights for all male
      property owners
Answer: 1

7.
7 The framework of government described in the
  Constitution of the United States (1787) most
  clearly shows the dissatisfaction of the founders
  with the
  (1) Albany Plan of Union
  (2) Northwest Ordinance
  (3) Articles of Confederation
  (4) Treaty of Paris
Answer: 3

8.
8 The term federalism is best defined as
  (1) the process of amending a constitution
  (2) the power of the courts to determine the
      constitutionality of laws
  (3) a republican form of government with no
      hereditary ruler
  (4) the division of power between the states and
      the national government
Answer: 4

9.
9 Which action is an example of the use of checks
  and balances?
  (1) impeachment of President Bill Clinton
  (2) choosing a vice presidential running mate by
      a presidential candidate
  (3) election of the Speaker of the House by the
      majority party
  (4) starting negotiations for a treaty by President
      George Washington
Answer: 1

10.
10 The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)
   held that states could nullify the Alien and
   Sedition Acts because these laws
   (1) repealed the Northwest Ordinance
   (2) placed an unfair tax on whiskey made by
       western farmers
   (3) violated the Constitution
   (4) established limits on universal suffrage
Answer: 3

11.
11 The Supreme Court decision in Marbury v.
   Madison (1803) increased the power of the federal
   courts by
   (1) increasing the number of judges
   (2) enabling the president to overturn lower-court
       decisions
   (3) establishing federal supremacy over state
       governments
   (4) establishing the principle of judicial review
Answer: 4

12.
Base your answers to questions 12 and 13 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
12 Based on the map, the Erie Canal and Hudson River contributed directly to the
   (1) decisions to restrict immigration
   (2) rapid increase in population in upstate New York
   (3) settlement of New England
   (4) acquisition of land from Canada
Answer: 2

13.
13 Completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 encouraged the growth of the Midwest because it
   (1) linked the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast
   (2) helped force the removal of British forts in the Northwest Territory
   (3) stimulated development of cotton production in the Ohio River valley
   (4) increased trade with Asia
Answer: 1

14.
14 A major reason for President Thomas Jefferson’s
   purchase of the Louisiana Territory was to
   (1) eliminate Spanish control of California
   (2) take possession of all of Florida
   (3) give the United States control of the
       Mississippi River
   (4) provide access to areas east of the Appalachian
       Mountains
Answer: 3

15.
15 What was one important geographic reason the
   United States was able to maintain a foreign
   policy of neutrality throughout most of the 19th
   century?
   (1) The Atlantic Ocean provided a buffer from
       European interference.
   (2) Extensive mountain ranges along the Pacific
       coastline prevented invasions.
   (3) Scarce natural resources discouraged inter-
       national trade.
   (4) European immigrants had rapid communi-
       cation with their homelands.
Answer: 1

16.
16 President Andrew Jackson used the spoils system to
   (1) stop the westward expansion of slavery
   (2) strengthen the military for national defense
   (3) reward loyal political supporters
   (4) destroy the Bank of the United States
Answer: 3

17.
17 After the Civil War, which development limited
   economic opportunities for African Americans in
   the South?
   (1) creation of military districts
   (2) establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau
   (3) use of the sharecropping system
   (4) ratification of the 14th amendment
Answer: 3

18.
18 During the 1870s, the Granger movement
   attracted the support of many western farmers
   because it proposed that
   (1) the money supply should be deflated by
       removing paper currency from circulation
   (2) shipping rates and grain storage fees charged
       by railroads should be regulated
   (3) immigrants should be given land on the Great
       Plains
   (4) the government should control the develop-
       ment of resources in the West
Answer: 2

19.
19 Literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and poll taxes
   were enacted by Southern States to
   (1) limit the movement of African Americans
   (2) restrict the voting rights of African Americans
   (3) improve the social status of African Americans
   (4) expand educational opportunities for African
       Americans
Answer: 2

20.
20 What was the primary goal of the Dawes Act of
   1887 regarding Native American Indians?
   (1) assimilating Native American Indians into
       mainstream American life
   (2) increasing the size of Native American Indian
       reservations
   (3) promoting Native American Indian languages
       and cultures
   (4) strengthening Native American Indian tribal
       governments
Answer: 1


21.
21 During the late 19th century, businesses tried to
   maximize profits by
   (1) eliminating tariffs
   (2) supporting labor unions
   (3) resisting laissez-faire policies
   (4) creating monopolies
Answer: 4

22.
22 What was one major impact of industrialization in
   the United States?
   (1) the disappearance of social class distinctions
   (2) a rise in the standard of living
   (3) an increase in the birth rate
   (4) the elimination of urban tenements
Answer: 2

23.
23 What was one characteristic of American
   imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th
   centuries?
   (1) avoiding involvement with nations in East Asia
   (2) supporting independence movements in Africa
   (3) rejecting the use of military force to gain
       colonies
   (4) acquiring territory to promote economic and
       strategic interests
Answer: 4

24.
24 Which development was a result of the
   Progressive movement?
   (1) Government increased its regulation of
       business practices.
   (2) Women become less active in public life.
   (3) The influence of the national government was
       reduced.
   (4) Congress failed to balance the federal budget.
Answer: 1

25.
25 The Federal Reserve System was created to
   (1) control the money supply
   (2) stimulate trade with other nations
   (3) regulate the stock market
   (4) fund public works projects
Answer: 1

26.
26 What was the major cause of African American
   migration from the rural South to northern cities
   during World War I?
   (1) offers of free public education
   (2) availability of factory jobs
   (3) desire to live in integrated neighborhoods
   (4) opportunity to gain religious freedom
Answer: 2

27.
27 After World War I, a “return to normalcy” was
   most clearly demonstrated by
   (1) opposition to joining the League of Nations
   (2) ending farm subsidies under the Agricultural
       Adjustment Act
   (3) reducing tariff rates on imported goods
   (4) rejection of disarmament agreements
Answer: 1

28.
28 The term Harlem Renaissance best describes
   (1) state and federal laws passed to end racial
       discrimination
   (2) urban renewal efforts in New York City
   (3) government programs to promote African
       American businesses
   (4) a period of African American cultural
       achievements
Answer: 4

29.
29 In the 1920s, controversies over Prohibition, the
   National Origins Act, and the Scopes trial all
   reflected disagreement over the
   (1) effects of demobilization
   (2) cultural values of the American people
   (3) role of the federal government in the economy
   (4) influence of labor unions on American life
Answer: 2

30.
    Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …2. We propose to limit the amount any one
   man can earn in one year or inherit to $1 million
   to the person.
      3. Now, by limiting the size of the fortunes and
   incomes of the big men, we will throw into the
   government Treasury the money and property
   from which we will care for the millions of people
   who have nothing; and with this money we will
   provide a home and the comforts of home, with
   such common conveniences as radio and
   automobile, for every family in America, free of
   debt….
                             — Senator Huey Long, 1935
30 Based on these statements by Senator Long, one
   reason for the suffering caused by the Great
   Depression was the
   (1) failure of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to
       sign relief legislation
   (2) overproduction of military equipment
   (3) uneven distribution of income that favored
       the rich
   (4) failure of labor unions to accept shorter work
       days
Answer: 3

31.
31 President Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to
   the circumstances described in this passage by
   (1) renewing New Deal programs to help big
       business
   (2) raising taxes to assure a balanced federal
       budget
   (3) stressing free market economic principles
   (4) increasing New Deal efforts for relief and
       reform
Answer: 4

32.
32 What was the primary motive behind President
   Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1937 proposal to add
   members to the Supreme Court?
   (1) removal of Republican justices from the Court
   (2) ending the Court’s use of judicial review
   (3) assuring United States neutrality at the start
       of World War II
   (4) protection of New Deal programs from
       unfavorable Court decisions
Answer: 4

33.
33 Which trend in United States foreign policy is
   shown by the passage of the Neutrality Act of
   1939, the destroyers for bases deal of 1940, and
   the Lend-Lease Act of 1941?
   (1) withdrawal from overseas colonies
   (2) expansion of trade with the Axis powers
   (3) increase in support for the Allied powers
   (4) reduction in war preparedness
Answer: 3

34.
34 The internment of Japanese Americans during
   World War II was initially authorized by
   (1) a constitutional amendment
   (2) an executive order of the president
   (3) a proclamation by the governor of California
   (4) a decision of the Supreme Court
Answer: 2

35.
Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 What is the most accurate title for this map?
   (1) American Imperialism in the 20th Century
   (2) World War II in the Pacific
   (3) Causes of World War II
   (4) Creation of Wartime Alliances
Answer: 2

36.
36 The map shows that the Allied forces
   (1) made slow but steady progress in defeating Japan
   (2) conducted most of the battles north of the Hawaiian Islands
   (3) maintained control of the Philippines from the beginning of the war
   (4) had military support from the Soviet Union throughout the war
Answer: 1


37.
37 One reason the United States supported the
   creation of the United Nations was to
   (1) determine blame for the start of World War II
   (2) improve efforts to collect war debts
   (3) maintain international peace
   (4) promote the development of nuclear weapons
Answer: 3

38.
38 The announcement of the Truman Doctrine, the
   Berlin airlift, and the formation of the North
   Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were
   actions taken by the United States to prevent the
   (1) renewal of Nazi fascism in Germany, Italy,
       and Spain
   (2) expansion of communism into Western
       Europe
   (3) starvation of refugees from Eastern Europe
   (4) start of an arms race between the United
       States and the Soviet Union
Answer: 2

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the speech
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   Good evening, my fellow citizens. This Government,
   as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance
   of the Soviet military build-up on the island of
   Cuba. Within the past week unmistakable
   evidence has established the fact that a series
   of offensive missile sites is now in preparation
   on that imprisoned island. The purposes of
   these bases can be none other than to provide a
   nuclear strike capability against the Western
   Hemisphere….
                  — President John F. Kennedy, Report to
                  the American People, October 22, 1962
39 President John F. Kennedy reacted strongly to
   the situation described in this speech primarily
   because
   (1) the United States feared an influx of Cuban
       refugees
   (2) these missiles could threaten United States
       oil supplies in South America
   (3) the location of Cuba would allow the United
       States little time to respond to an attack
   (4) the United States and the Warsaw Pact
       nations had formed a military alliance
Answer: 3

40.
40 One criticism of the Warren Court’s decisions in
   Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright
   (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) is that the
   Supreme Court
   (1) limited police powers while expanding the
       rights of criminal defendants
   (2) denied the first amendment rights of antiwar
       protestors and the press
   (3) forced the desegregation of public
       transportation
   (4) restricted the rights of students in public
       schools
Answer: 1

41.
41 During the 1960s, the foreign policy of President
   Lyndon B. Johnson was criticized because it
   (1) failed to support the space program
   (2) escalated the Vietnam War
   (3) restricted overseas travel for American
       citizens
   (4) eliminated economic aid to African nations
Answer: 2

42.
42 The decision of the Supreme Court in the case of
   United States v. Nixon (1974) stated that
   (1) President Richard Nixon as commander in
       chief could extend the Vietnam War into
       Cambodia
   (2) executive branch officials could be fired by
       the president without the Senate’s approval
   (3) executive privilege did not allow the
       president to withhold recordings that were
       related to the Watergate affair
   (4) congressional approval of the War Powers Act
       of 1973 violated the separation of powers
Answer: 3

43.
Base your answers to questions 43 and 44 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 Which statement most accurately expresses the point of view of the cartoonist?
   (1) The United States should increase its imports from China.
   (2) Many products made in the United States are sold in China.
   (3) The American economy has become overly dependent on China.
   (4) Many Americans have had to move to China to find work.
Answer: 3

44.
44 Many American corporations contributed to the problem shown in the cartoon by
   (1) demanding that Congress increase export taxes
   (2) establishing manufacturing facilities overseas
   (3) paying workers lower wages to encourage them to retire
   (4) lobbying the federal government to increase the minimum wage
Answer: 2

45.
Base your answer to question 45 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
45 What is considered a major cause of the problem shown in the cartoon?
   (1) Employers pay higher Social Security taxes than employees pay.
   (2) Most Americans want to end Social Security programs.
   (3) Wealthy people pay the largest share of the Social Security taxes.
   (4) The growing number of Social Security recipients are being supported
       by relatively fewer workers.
Answer: 4

46.
46 One important goal of the Monroe Doctrine
   (1823) was to
   (1) reduce trade barriers between the United
       States and African nations
   (2) establish United States colonies and naval
       bases in the Caribbean
   (3) provide military assistance to help the
       Philippines gain independence from Spain
   (4) prevent former colonial powers from taking
       over Latin American nations
Answer: 4

47.
47 The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
   agreements signed in the 1970s by the United
   States and the Soviet Union were efforts to
   (1) reduce Cold War tensions
   (2) establish a worldwide human rights policy
   (3) increase cooperation in the United Nations
   (4) negotiate a lasting peace in the Middle East
Answer: 1

48.
48 “Troops Break Up Bonus Army Protest”
   “FDR Proclaims Bank Holiday”
   “Misery Created by Dust Bowl”
   These headlines concern events that occurred
   during the
   (1) Civil War
   (2) Progressive Era
   (3) Great Depression
   (4) Cold War
Answer: 3

49.
Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
49 The opinion expressed by the cartoonist is that the USA Patriot Act allows
   the federal government to
   (1) set new term limits for federal judges
   (2) restrict the investigative powers of the police
   (3) violate freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
   (4) eliminate States rights reserved in the 10th amendment
Answer: 3

50.
50 This cartoon was published in response to federal actions that followed
   which event?
   (1) passage of the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918)
   (2) Supreme Court decision in Korematsu v. United States (1944)
   (3) civil rights march on Washington, D.C. (1963)
   (4) attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (2001)
Answer: 4


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
        In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
              (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
              (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                  and argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Organizations
                 Throughout United States history, individuals and groups have formed organizations
                 to achieve specific reforms. The reform efforts of these organizations have met
                 with varying degrees of success.
        Task:
                 Identify two organizations that were formed to achieve a specific reform and for
                 each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the formation of the
                   organization
                 • Discuss the degree to which the organization’s reform efforts were successful
           You may use any organization from your study of United States history. Some suggestions
        you might wish to consider include the American Anti-Slavery Society (1833), the National
        Woman Suffrage Association (1869), the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1874), the
        American Federation of Labor (1886), the Populist Party (1890), the Anti-Defamation League
        (1913), the United Farm Workers (1966), and the National Organization for Women (1966).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a
                  conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout United States history, presidents have taken actions that have had a
              significant impact on the United States and American society. Three such presidential
              actions were Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, Theodore Roosevelt’s
              support for consumer protection, and Lyndon Johnson’s support for civil
              rights.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two presidential actions mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the president’s action
                • Discuss the impact of the president’s action on the United States and/or on
                  American society
       In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
             (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
             (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                 and argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
        … The Southeastern Indians were particularly vulnerable. The traffic in deerskins, in which they
        had been intimately involved, had increasingly been replaced by a thriving cotton trade—
        spurred on by the invention of the cotton gin…[1793]—in which they were at best marginal
        producers and at worst obstacles to land-hungry whites. Much of their remaining territory was
        rich farmland, and the more they ‘improved’ it in the hope of turning themselves into acceptable
        neighbours, the more desirable they made it to would-be plantation-owners. A popular song at
        the time went:
                         All I ask in this creation
                         Is a pretty little wife and a big plantation
                         Way up yonder in the Cherokee Nation….
                Source: James Wilson, The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America, Grove Press, 1998 (adapted)
 1 According to James Wilson, what was one reason Native American Indians in the Southeast were removed
   from their native lands? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2
President Andrew Jackson had signed the Indian Removal Act on May 28, 1830.
      … The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual
      States, and to the [Native American] Indians themselves. The pecuniary [financial] advantages
      which it promises to the Government are the least of its recommendations. It puts an end to all
      possible danger of collision between the authorities of the General [Federal] and State
      Governments on account of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized population in large
      tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. By opening the whole territory between
      Tennessee on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of the whites it will
      incalculably [greatly] strengthen the SW [southwestern] frontier and render the adjacent States
      strong enough to repel future invasions without remote aid. It will relieve the whole State of
      Mississippi and the western part of Alabama of Indian occupancy, and enable those States
      to advance rapidly in population, wealth, and power. It will separate the Indians from immediate
      contact with settlements of whites; free them from the power of the States; enable them
      to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude [primitive] institutions;
      will retard [slow] the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause
      them gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good
      counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian
      community. These consequences, some of them so certain and the rest so probable, make
      the complete execution of the plan sanctioned by Congress [Indian Removal Act] at their last
      session an object of much solicitude [concern].…
                         Source: President Andrew Jackson, Second Annual Message to Congress, December 6, 1830
2 According to President Andrew Jackson, what were two reasons for establishing an Indian removal policy? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 3a
Document 3b
      …It was natural, at a time when the national territory seemed almost illimitable [unlimited] and
      contained many millions of acres far outside the bounds of civilized settlements, that a policy
      should have been initiated which more than aught [anything] else has been the fruitful source of
      our [Native American] Indian complications.
          I refer, of course, to the policy of dealing with the various Indian tribes as separate
      nationalities, of relegating them by treaty stipulations to the occupancy of immense reservations
      in the West, and of encouraging them to live a savage life, undisturbed by any earnest and well-
      directed efforts to bring them under the influences of civilization.
          The unsatisfactory results which have sprung from this policy are becoming apparent to all.
          As the white settlements have crowded the borders of the reservations, the Indians,
      sometimes contentedly and sometimes against their will, have been transferred to other hunting
      grounds, from which they have again been dislodged whenever their new-found homes have
      been desired by the adventurous settlers.
          These removals and the frontier collisions by which they have often been preceded have led
      to frequent and disastrous conflicts between the races.…
                                      Source: President Chester A. Arthur, Message to Congress, December 6, 1881
3 Based on these documents, what were two effects of federal removal policies on Native American Indians? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
Document 4a
In 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a commission to investigate practices in meatpacking
plants. This is an excerpt from the commission’s findings that were presented to Congress.
     …The results of our observations have already been partly given. Other instances of how
     products may be made up, and still secure the stamp of government inspection, are here given.
     In one well-known establishment we came upon fresh meat being shoveled into barrels, and a
     regular proportion being added of stale scraps that had lain on a dirty floor in the corner of a room
     for some days previous. In another establishment equally well known, a long table was noted
     covered with several hundred pounds of cooked scraps of beef and other meats. Some of these
     meat scraps were dry, leathery and unfit to be eaten; and in the heap were found pieces of pigskin,
     and even some bits of rope strands and other rubbish. Inquiry evoked the frank admission from
     the man in charge that this was to be ground up and used in making “potted ham.”…
                                                   Source: Locomotive Firemen’s Magazine, July–December, 1906
Document 4b
4 Based on these documents, what is one reason President Theodore Roosevelt supported consumer
  protection laws? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 5
                *Pure Food and Drug Act
5 Based on this advertisement, state one way the Pure Food and Drug Act would protect consumers. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 6
          Eight months ago I signed into law the Wholesome Meat Act of 1967. That landmark bill
     capped a crusade that had begun 60 years ago—[in the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt] to
     assure American housewives that the meat they served their families was pure, not harmful or
     dirty or diseased.
          Today I am proud to sign a bill that will extend the same coverage to all poultry products. It
     is the fulfillment of a promise I made to every housewife—in my first consumer message just
     after I became President.
          In the early days of this century, Americans took for granted that there were risks in buying
     food. They even joked about it in print. One newspaper printed a little poem:
          “Mary had a little lamb,
          And when she saw it sicken,
          She shipped it off to packing town,
          And now it’s labeled chicken.”
          In 1968, we cannot tolerate the image, or the fact, of unwholesome food:
     —Not when Americans last year consumed more than 12 billion pounds of poultry.
     —Not when a full 13 percent of that supply—or 1.6 billion pounds—was subject to little or no
     inspection because it didn’t cross State lines….
          The Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968 will insure that dirty plants will have to clean
     up or close down….
                Source: President Lyndon B. Johnson, Statement Upon Signing the Wholesome Poultry Products Act,
                                                                                               August 19, 1968
6 Based on this document, how did President Lyndon B. Johnson continue the consumer protection action
  begun by President Theodore Roosevelt? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


59.
Document 7
      …It ought to be possible, in short, for every American to enjoy the privileges of being American
      without regard to his race or his color. In short, every American ought to have the right to be
      treated as he would wish to be treated, as one would wish his children to be treated. But this is
      not the case.…
          The heart of the question is whether all Americans are to be afforded equal rights and equal
      opportunities, whether we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated. If
      an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public, if he
      cannot send his children to the best public school available, if he cannot vote for the public
      officials who represent him, if, in short, he cannot enjoy the full and free life which all of us want,
      then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his
      place? Who among us would then be content with the counsels of patience and delay?…
          Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise. The events in Birmingham and
      elsewhere have so increased the cries for equality that no city or State or legislative body can
      prudently choose to ignore them.…
          We face, therefore, a moral crisis as a country and as a people. It cannot be met by repressive
      police action. It cannot be left to increase demonstrations in the streets. It cannot be quieted by
      token moves or talk. It is a time to act in the Congress, in your State and local legislative body
      and, above all, in all of our daily lives….
               Source: President John F. Kennedy, Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights,
                                                                                                      June 11, 1963
7 According to President John F. Kennedy, what is one inequality African Americans continued to face in
  1963? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


60.
Document 8
President Lyndon B. Johnson addresses the nation as he prepares to sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
      My fellow Americans:
          I am about to sign into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964. I want to take this occasion to talk
      to you about what that law means to every American….
          Americans of every race and color have died in battle to protect our freedom. Americans of
      every race and color have worked to build a nation of widening opportunities. Now our
      generation of Americans has been called on to continue the unending search for justice within
      our own borders.
          We believe that all men are created equal. Yet many are denied equal treatment….
           We believe that all men are entitled to the blessings of liberty. Yet millions are being deprived
      of those blessings—not because of their own failures, but because of the color of their skin.
         The reasons are deeply imbedded in history and tradition and the nature of man. We can
      understand—without rancor or hatred—how this all happened.
          But it cannot continue. Our Constitution, the foundation of our Republic, forbids it. The
      principles of our freedom forbid it. Morality forbids it. And the law I will sign tonight forbids it.…
      Source: President Lyndon B. Johnson, Radio and Television Remarks upon Signing the Civil Rights Bill, July 2, 1964,
                                                                      Lyndon B. Johnson Library & Museum (adapted)
8 Based on this document, what is one reason President Lyndon B. Johnson supported the Civil Rights Act
  of 1964? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


61.
Document 9a
       …The Civil Rights Act of 1964 also revealed that Congress really can change conditions in the
       United States if it truly wishes to do so. The act ended virtually immediately and completely all
       forms of public segregation in the nation, both North and South. The threat of cutting off U.S.
       funds to government programs and business concerns that discriminate against minorities has
       made “equal employment opportunity” and “affirmative action in hiring” fixed institutions in
       American life. The act empowered the attorney general of the United States to sue for the
       desegregation of schools, a program that has resulted in the use of school busing to achieve racial
       balance in the nation’s schools. The act was the first national law to guarantee significant equal
       rights for women, and it set the precedent for using cloture to stop a filibuster on a civil rights
       bill—a precedent that was used in…[1968] to pass a national law [the Fair Housing Act]
       guaranteeing equal housing opportunity.…
                    Source: Robert D. Loevy, “A Brief History of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,” in Kozak and Ciboski, eds.,
                                                                   The American Presidency, Nelson Hall, 1985 (adapted)
9a According to Robert D. Loevy, what were two effects of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


62.
Document 9b
 The Voting Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965.
       …The [social and economic] system was working hard, by the late sixties and early seventies, to
       contain the frightening explosiveness of the black [African American] upsurge. Blacks were
       voting in large numbers in the South, and in the 1968 Democratic Convention three blacks were
       admitted into the Mississippi delegation. By 1977, more than two thousand blacks held office in
       eleven southern states (in 1965 the number was seventy-two). There were two Congressmen,
       eleven state senators, ninety-five state representatives, 267 county commissioners, seventy-six
       mayors, 824 city council members, eighteen sheriffs or chiefs of police, 508 school board
       members. It was a dramatic advance. But blacks, with 20 percent of the South’s population, still
       held less than 3 percent of the elective offices. A New York Times reporter, analyzing the new
       situation in 1977, pointed out that even where blacks held important city offices: “Whites almost
       always retain economic power.” After Maynard Jackson, a black, became mayor of Atlanta, “the
       white business establishment continued to exert its influence.”…
                               Source: Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States, Harper Perennial, 2003
9b Based on this document, what was one effect of the Voting Rights Act of 1965? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


63.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout United States history, presidents have taken actions that have had a
                significant impact on the United States and American society. Three such presidential
                actions were Andrew Jackson’s Indian removal policy, Theodore Roosevelt’s
                support for consumer protection, and Lyndon Johnson’s support for civil
                rights.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two presidential actions mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the president’s action
                  • Discuss the impact of the president’s action on the United States and/or on
                    American society
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion
                  that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents June 2015 Exam


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