Syvum Home Page

Home > Examinations > NYSED Regents Exams > US History and Govt > Print Preview

US History and Government - New York Regents June 2011 Exam

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review

Hide all answers   View all answers   Print   Try the Quiz

Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 Primary sources of information about the colonial
  era would include a
  (1) journal entry by a member of the Second
      Continental Congress
  (2) textbook passage about the settlement of
  (3) recent newspaper article commemorating the
      birth of Patrick Henry
  (4) television program about the Declaration of
Answer: 1

2 Which geographic area was added to the United
  States by the Louisiana Purchase?
  (1) Appalachian Mountains
  (2) Columbia River valley
  (3) Great Plains
  (4) Piedmont Plateau
Answer: 3

3 Which heading best completes the partial outline
     I. _______
        A. Mayflower Compact
        B. House of Burgesses
        C. New England town meetings
  (1) Attempts to Overthrow British Rule
  (2) Development of Self-Government in the
      American Colonies
  (3) Establishment of British Parliamentary
      Control Over the Colonies
  (4) Social Reform Movements in the American
Answer: 2

4 In the 170os, the triangular trade led directly to the
  (1) middle colonies’ role as the chief importers of
      agricultural products
  (2) rapid industrialization of the southern
  (3) decline of the New England economy
  (4) increased importation of enslaved Africans to
      the Western Hemisphere
Answer: 4

5 American colonists showed their opposition to
  the British taxation and trade restrictions of the
  176os primarily by
  (1) supporting the French against the British
  (2) boycotting products from Great Britain
  (3) overthrowing the royal governors in most of
      the colonies
  (4) purchasing additional products from Native
      American Indian tribes
Answer: 2

6 Which idea guided the development of the
  Articles of Confederation?
  (1) A strong central government would threaten
      the rights of the people.
  (2) All the people should be granted the right to
  (3) Most power should rest with the judicial
  (4) Only the central government would have the
      power to levy taxes.
Answer: 1

7 “…The accumulation of all powers, legislative,
  executive, and judiciary, in the same hands,
  whether of one, a few, or many, and whether
  hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly
  be pronounced the very definition of tyranny….”
                                    — James Madison
  Which feature of the United States Constitution
  was included to address the concern expressed by
  James Madison?
  (1) electoral college
  (2) checks and balances
  (3) Bill of Rights
  (4) amendment process
Answer: 2

8 The primary purpose of the Federalist Papers was to
  (1) justify the American Revolution to the
  (2) promote the continuation of British rule
  (3) encourage ratification of the United States
  (4) support the election of George Washington as
Answer: 3

9 Which statement most accurately explains why
  the institution of slavery was continued under the
  original Constitution of the United States?
  (1) The early factory system relied on the labor of
  (2) The majority of American families owned
      several slaves.
  (3) Slave rebellions made most whites oppose
      freedom for African Americans.
  (4) Southern states would not agree to a
      constitution that banned slavery.
Answer: 4

10 The elastic clause of the United States
   Constitution gives Congress the power to
   (1) “make rules for the government and
       regulation of the land and naval forces;…”
   (2) “regulate commerce with foreign nations, and
       among the several states, and with the Indian
   (3) “lay and collect taxes, duties, imports and
   (4) “make all laws which shall be necessary and
       proper for carrying into execution the
       foregoing powers,…”
Answer: 4

11 What was a significant effect of Supreme Court
   decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall
   (1) The powers of the federal government were
   (2) The extension of slavery was limited.
   (3) The president’s use of the veto power was
   (4) The states were given more control over
       interstate commerce.
Answer: 1

12 How did completion of the Erie Canal in 1825
   affect United States commerce?
   (1) New York City lost business as manufacturing
       centers grew in the West.
   (2) United States exports to European countries
   (3) Western farmers gained better access to East
       Coast markets.
   (4) The Midwest became the center of textile
Answer: 3

13 During the 183os, the development of a national
   two-party political system was mainly the result of
   (1) conflicts over the use of the Monroe Doctrine
   (2) debates over the National Bank and tariffs
   (3) disputes over the Oregon boundary
   (4) controversy over the Indian Removal Act
Answer: 2

Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
14 The map illustrates the impact on the United States of the
   (1) Great Compromise                    (3) Dred Scott decision
   (2) Missouri Compromise                 (4) Emancipation Proclamation
Answer: 2

15 Information on the map supports the conclusion that congressional leaders in 1820 and
   1821 wanted to
   (1) maintain an equal number of free and slave states
   (2) ban slavery west of the Mississippi River
   (3) bring slavery to the Oregon Country
   (4) open territories in the North to slavery
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 16 on the chart below and on your knowledge of social studies.
16 Which conclusion can best be drawn from the information in this chart?
   (1) The Southern states led the nation in manufacturing.
   (2) Manufacturing production in the Western states exceeded that of the New England states.
   (3) The Middle states led the nation in all categories related to manufacturing.
   (4) The New England states depended more on agriculture than on manufacturing.
Answer: 3

17 Which argument was used by President Abraham
   Lincoln to explain his policy of leniency toward
   the South after the Civil War?
   (1) Most Southerners have remained loyal to the
       Union during the war.
   (2) Most Southerners are willing to grant equality
       to formerly enslaved persons.
   (3) The federal government has no authority to
       punish states for secession.
   (4) Healing the nation’s wounds quickly is
Answer: 4

18 In the Compromise of 1877 that ended
   Reconstruction, Republicans agreed to
   (1) withdraw federal troops from the South
   (2) support the Black Codes
   (3) award the presidency to Democrat Samuel
   (4) accept the Supreme Court decision in Dred
       Scott v. Sanford
Answer: 1

19 In the late 180os, rapid industrial development
   resulted in
   (1) a decrease in tariff rates
   (2) a decrease in population growth
   (3) an increase in the rate of urbanization
   (4) an increase in the price of farm products
Answer: 3

20 Which geographic feature connected the iron ore
   fields of the upper Midwest to major steel
   (1) Great Lakes
   (2) Gulf of Mexico
   (3) Hudson River
   (4) Tennessee River valley
Answer: 1

21 The formation of national labor unions in the late
   180os was mainly a response to
   (1) passage of federal laws that favored workers
   (2) laws restricting immigration and naturalization
   (3) poor working conditions and low wages in
       many industries
   (4) economic depressions that had led to high
Answer: 3

22 Many of the business trusts created in the late
   180os were eventually declared illegal primarily
   because they
   (1) eliminated competition by forming monopolies
   (2) combined companies that manufactured different products
   (3) donated large sums of money to political
   (4) allowed children to work under unsafe
Answer: 1

23 Literacy tests and grandfather clauses were
   enacted in the South after the Reconstruction
   Era primarily to
   (1) increase the number of women voters
   (2) limit the number of African American voters
   (3) guarantee that voters could read and write
   (4) ensure that formerly enslaved persons met
       property requirements
Answer: 2

24 Upton Sinclair, Frank Norris, and Ida Tarbell
   made their greatest contributions to the
   Progressive movement by
   (1) working to end political corruption in cities
   (2) speaking out for the equal rights of Hispanic
   (3) supporting legislation to improve tenement
   (4) publishing books and articles to expose the
       problems of society
Answer: 4

25 Which action was a result of the other three?
   (1) Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine
   (2) United States entry into World War I
   (3) interception of the Zimmermann Note
   (4) United States loans to Allied nations
Answer: 2

26 The vote by the United States Senate on the
   Treaty of Versailles (1919) demonstrated
   (1) an unwillingness to join the League of
   (2) a commitment to collective security
   (3) a belief that the nation required a stronger
   (4) a rejection of colonialism
Answer: 1

27 Which development most clearly illustrates the
   nativist attitudes that existed in the United States
   in the 192os?
   (1) limits on immigration established by the
       Quota Acts
   (2) pro-business policies of the federal
   (3) artistic and literary achievements of the
       Harlem Renaissance
   (4) conflicts between religion and science as
       shown in the Scopes Trial
Answer: 1

28 Which movement’s primary goal was the
   ratification of a constitutional amendment
   authorizing Prohibition?
   (1) abolitionist         (3) temperance
   (2) Populist             (4) settlement house
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 29 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
29 The cartoon illustrates President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt’s dissatisfaction with
   (1) Congress leading the nation into World War II
   (2) Congress resisting proposals to strengthen
       the navy
   (3) New Deal programs being declared
   (4) being unable to appoint minorities to the
       Supreme Court
Answer: 3

30 The Neutrality Acts of the 193os reflect the
   efforts of Congress to
   (1) reject the terms of the Kellogg-Briand Pact
   (2) avoid foreign policy mistakes that led the
       country into World War I
   (3) form military alliances with other democratic
   (4) strengthen the American military against
       European dictators
Answer: 2

31 During World War II, the Manhattan Project was
   the name of the plan to
   (1) open a second front in Europe
   (2) capture Pacific islands held by the Japanese
   (3) develop the atomic bomb
   (4) liberate German concentration camps
Answer: 3

32 Women played a major role on the domestic front
   during World War II by
   (1) becoming candidates for public office
   (2) campaigning for woman’s suffrage
   (3) demonstrating against involvement in the war
   (4) taking jobs in the defense industry
Answer: 4

33 Which statement about the Marshall Plan is most
   (1) It was used to finance rearmament after
       World War II.
   (2) It was denied to all former World War II
   (3) It was used to rebuild European nations after
       World War II.
   (4) It was given to all African and Asian allies
       during the Cold War.
Answer: 3

34 The Hungarian uprising of 1956, the U-2
   incident, and the Cuban missile crisis led to
   (1) military actions by the Southeast Asia Treaty
       Organization (SEATO)
   (2) increased tensions between the United States
       and the Soviet Union
   (3) international efforts to control communist
   (4) creation of the Warsaw Pact
Answer: 2

35 The United States Supreme Court under Chief
   Justice Earl Warren (1953–1969) made several
   landmark decisions that
   (1) drew criticism for supporting States rights
   (2) weakened the power of the federal
   (3) strengthened the authority of the police
   (4) increased the rights of individuals
Answer: 4

36 The baby boom after World War II led directly to
   (1) a decrease in spending for public education
   (2) a return to a rural lifestyle
   (3) an increased demand for housing
   (4) a decrease in consumer spending
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 37 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
37 The legislation identified in this chart was an
   effort to solve problems related to
   (1) illegal immigration and terrorism
   (2) poverty and discrimination
   (3) illiteracy and domestic abuse
   (4) budget deficits and famine
Answer: 2

Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
38 Based on this map, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) received the least support in the
   (1) Rocky Mountain states               (3) northeastern states
   (2) Pacific Coast states                (4) southeastern states
Answer: 4

39 Based on this map, the proposed equal rights amendment was not added to the
   Constitution because
   (1) too few New England states supported it
   (2) fewer than three-fourths of the states ratified it
   (3) the president vetoed the passage of the amendment
   (4) Idaho, Nebraska, and Kentucky never held a ratification vote
Answer: 2

40 Which action was a major foreign policy
   achievement of President Jimmy Carter?
   (1) settling the Suez crisis
   (2) withdrawing the United States from the
       Vietnam War
   (3) establishing improved relations with Iran
   (4) mediating the Camp David Accords between
       Egypt and Israel
Answer: 4

41 President Ronald Reagan used the concept of
   supply-side economics when he proposed
   (1) reducing income taxes to stimulate growth
   (2) providing direct payments to people living in
   (3) creating government jobs to keep people
   (4) increasing regulations on business to promote
Answer: 1

42 Which action has come to symbolize the end of
   the Cold War?
   (1) establishing the Peace Corps
   (2) achieving a truce in the Korean War
   (3) tearing down the Berlin Wall
   (4) improving United States relations with China
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 43 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 The main idea of this cartoon about the Iraq War
   is that
   (1) the American public should no longer support
        the president’s goals
   (2) President George W. Bush claimed victory
        too soon
   (3) American troops should be coming home soon
   (4) creating a democratic government is no longer
        the goal of the war
Answer: 2

44 Which war is most closely associated with the
   emergence of the United States as a world power?
   (1) War of 1812
   (2) Mexican War
   (3) Civil War
   (4) Spanish-American War
Answer: 4

45 President Abraham Lincoln’s suspension of
   habeas corpus and President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt’s executive order forcing Japanese
   Americans into internment camps both
   demonstrate that
   (1) constitutional rights can be limited during
       times of war
   (2) Congress can pass laws limiting the power of
       a strong president
   (3) immigrants are protected by the same
       constitutional rights as United States citizens
   (4) presidential actions must be submitted to the
       Supreme Court for approval
Answer: 1

46 The policy of assimilating Native American
   Indians under the Dawes Act (1887) was reversed
   by 2oth-century legislation that
   (1) gave Native American Indians greater control
       over their own reservations
   (2) helped relocate Native American Indians to
       large cities
   (3) broke up Native American Indian tribes by
       giving each family its own land
   (4) forced Native American Indian children to be
       educated away from their families
Answer: 1

47 “Attorney General Palmer Deports 249 Foreigners”
   “Nixon Accuses Alger Hiss of Espionage” (1948)
   “Rosenbergs Executed for Treason” (1953)
   Each of these headlines demonstrates that during
   the 2oth century
   (1) the rights of the accused were expanded
   (2) membership rose dramatically in groups
       considered to be subversive
   (3) censorship was a primary policy of the government
   (4) fear of communist activities prompted government actions
Answer: 4

48 Which issue was involved in both the firing of
   General Douglas MacArthur in 1951 and the
   passage of the War Powers Act of 1973?
   (1) judicial limits on free speech
   (2) media influence on budget policies
   (3) the president’s authority as commander in
   (4) expansion of the military-industrial complex
Answer: 3

49 How is the presidential election of 2000 similar to
   the presidential elections of 1824 and 1876?
   (1) The electoral vote count ended in a tie.
   (2) The third-party candidate won several
       electoral votes.
   (3) The winner of the popular vote did not
       become president.
   (4) The United States Senate selected the
Answer: 3

50 A major way in which the Civil Rights Act (1964)
   and the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
   are similar is that both laws
   (1) were intended to lift Americans out of
   (2) failed to pass constitutional review by the
       Supreme Court
   (3) gave a minority group the right to vote after
       years of protest
   (4) provided equal protection to groups that had
       experienced discrimination
Answer: 4

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Change — Constitutional Amendments
                  When the Founding Fathers wrote the United States Constitution, they included
                  the amendment process. The amendments that have been passed brought
                  political, social, and economic changes to American society.
                  Select two constitutional amendments that have changed American society and
                    for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the adoption of the
                  • Discuss the political, social, and/or economic changes the amendment brought
                    to American society
            You may use any constitutional amendments that have changed American society. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include the 13th amendment (abolition of slavery, 1865),
        17th amendment (direct election of senators, 1913), 18th amendment (Prohibition, 1919),
        19th amendment (woman’s suffrage, 1920), 22nd amendment (presidential term limits, 1951),
        24th amendment (elimination of the poll tax, 1964), and 26th amendment (suffrage for
        18-year-old citizens, 1971).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              For many Americans, the 192os was a decade of prosperity and confidence.
              However, by the end of the decade, political, social, and economic changes were
              starting that would create a far different America in the 193os.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               • Discuss the differences and/or similarities in American society between the
                 192os and the 193os
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
1 Based on these cartoons, what is the relationship between President Calvin Coolidge’s administration and
  big business in the 192os? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 2
      …And what were these “own lives” of theirs [women] to be like? Well, for one thing, they could
      take jobs. Up to this time girls of the middle classes who had wanted to “do something” had been
      largely restricted to school-teaching, social-service work, nursing, stenography, and clerical work
      in business houses. But now they poured out of the schools and colleges into all manner of new
      occupations. They besieged the offices of publishers and advertisers; they went into tea-room
      management until there threatened to be more purveyors [sellers] than consumers of chicken
      patties and cinnamon toast; they sold antiques, sold real estate, opened smart little shops, and
      finally invaded the department stores. In 1920 the department store was in the mind of the
      average college girl a rather bourgeois [middle class] institution which employed “poor shop
      girls”; by the end of the decade college girls were standing in line for openings in the misses’
      sports-wear department and even selling behind the counter in the hope that some day fortune
      might smile upon them and make them buyers or stylists. Small-town girls who once would have
      been contented to stay in Sauk Center [Minnesota] all their days were now borrowing from
      father to go to New York or Chicago to seek their fortunes — in Best’s or Macy’s or Marshall
      Field’s. Married women who were encumbered [burdened] with children and could not seek
      jobs consoled themselves with the thought that home-making and child-rearing were really
      “professions,” after all. No topic was so furiously discussed at luncheon tables from one end of
      the country to the other as the question whether the married woman should take a job, and
      whether the mother had a right to. And as for the unmarried woman, she no longer had to
      explain why she worked in a shop or an office; it was idleness, nowadays, that had to be defended.…
                                     Source: Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 192os,
                                                                                                Harper & Row, 1931
2 According to Frederick Lewis Allen, what is one way middle-class women’s lives changed in the 192os? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 3
   Howard Johnson was an African American newspaper editor.
      …The time was ripe for a renaissance back then. After the defeat of the kaiser in Germany [in
      World War I], a spirit of optimism and positive expectation swept across Harlem. The Allies won
      the war for democracy, so now it was time for something to happen in America to change the
      system of segregation and lynching that was going on. In Europe, the black [African American]
      troops were welcomed as liberators; so when they came back to America, they were determined
      to create a situation that would approximate the slogans they had been fighting for. They wanted
      democracy at home in the United States. And this general idea helped feed the concept of “The
        A lot of people wonder how there could be joy and optimism in a community under the
      conditions of segregation and discrimination. But the black community had two very important
      forces that enabled it to survive and grow. One was the church, where you had the gospel and
      the spiritual, which were inspirational in their basic content. And the other was the
      entertainment world, where you had the music of the secular side, expressed in jazz.…
                      Source: Howard Johnson, interviewed in Jennings and Brewster, The Century, Doubleday, 1998
3a According to Howard Johnson, what was one effect of World War I on the black community? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

b According to Howard Johnson, what was one factor that helped the black community during the 192os? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 4
4 State one criticism that this cartoonist is making about the 192os generation. [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 5a
   I. W. Burnham was a Wall Street stockbroker.
       …People were making a lot of money in the stock market—you could sort of feel it when you
       visited customers or made deliveries. Everybody was really, really busy and they were feeling
       pretty good about themselves. It was around this time that the public got more interested in the
       market than they had been. Stock prices had been going up pretty steadily, and even though it
       was still mainly rich people investing, the average guy was starting to hear about friends making
       $20,000 or $30,000 overnight. There was rampant [widespread] speculation, and if you wanted
       to take part all you had to do was put up 10 percent of the money and a broker would cover the
                 Source: I. W. Burnham, interviewed in Jennings and Brewster, The Century, Doubleday, 1998 (adapted)
5a According to I. W. Burnham, what was one reason the public became more interested in the stock market
   in the 192os? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 5b
      …Critics of big business in the 192os emphasized not only the increase in concentration, but also
      the fact that the benefits of technological innovation were by no means evenly distributed.
      Corporate profits and dividends far outpaced the rise in wages, and despite the high productivity
      of the period, there was a disturbing amount of unemployment. At any given moment in the
      “golden twenties,” from 7 to 12 percent were jobless. Factory workers in “sick” [weak] industries
      such as coal, leather, and textiles saw little of flush [prosperous] times. Nor did blacks [African
      Americans] in ghetto tenements, or Hispanics in the foul barrios of Los Angeles or El Paso, or
      Native Americans abandoned on desolate reservations. The Loray Mill in Gastonia, North
      Carolina, site of a bloody strike in 1929, paid its workers that year a weekly wage of $18 to men
      and $9 to women for a 70-hour week. At the height of Coolidge prosperity, the secretary of the
      Gastonia Chamber of Commerce boasted that children of fourteen were permitted to work only
      11 hours a day. Perhaps as many as two million boys and girls under fifteen continued to toil in
      textile mills, cranberry bogs, and beet fields. In 1929, 71 percent of American families had
      incomes under $2,500, generally thought to be the minimum standard for a decent living. The
      36,000 wealthiest families received as much income as the 12,000,000 families—42 percent of
      all those in America—who received under $1,500 a year, below the poverty line.…
           Source: William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932, University of Chicago Press (adapted)
5b According to William Leuchtenburg, what was one economic problem of the 192os? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 6
6 Based on the information in these charts, state one economic trend of the early 193os. [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 7a
   Bruce Craven is responding to one of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chats.
                                                 JULY 25, 1933
       Dear Mr. President;
       …The forgotten man has been forgotten, if he was ever really remembered. I happen to be an
       approved attorney for the Federal Land Bank, and on publication of the information about the
       new loan legislation, the little man came to see me vainly hoping that at last he had been
       remembered. He is representative of thousands of farmers in North Carolina, owning maybe 50
       acres of land and doing all of his own work, and about to lose his farm under a mortgage. But to
       get the loan he is obliged to pay $20 in advance for appraisals, and another $10 for a survey, and
       he no more has that much cash than he has the moon. I have written to everyone from
       Mr. [Treasury Secretary Henry] Morgenthau on down about this, and no one is interested. The
       prevailing idea seems to be that if a man is that poor, he should stay poor.
         Before any of this loan and public works legislation was enacted, I wrote you that you ought to
       put at least one human being in each supervising body, and by that I meant a man who actually
       knows there is a “little man” in this nation and that he never has had a fair chance, and that he
       deserves one. I hope yet that somehow you may remember this forgotten little man, who has no
       one in high places to befriend him.
                                                                                           Respectfully yours,
                                                                                                Bruce Craven
                                                                                      Trinity, North Carolina
                          Source: Levine and Levine, The People and the President: America’s Conversation with FDR,
                                                                                               Beacon Press, 2002
7a According to Bruce Craven, why does “the forgotten man” need help? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 7b
7b Based on this cartoon, what is the relationship between “the forgotten man” and President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 8a
      …Working women at first lost their jobs at a faster rate than men—then reentered the work
      force more rapidly. In the early years of the Depression, many employers, including the federal
      government, tried to spread what employment they had to heads of households. That meant
      firing any married woman identified as a family’s “secondary” wage-earner. But the gender
      segregation in employment patterns that was already well established before the Depression also
      worked to women’s advantage. Heavy industry suffered the worst unemployment, but relatively
      few women stoked blast furnaces in the steel mills or drilled rivets on assembly lines or swung
      hammers in the building trades. The teaching profession, however, in which women were highly
      concentrated and indeed constituted a hefty majority of employees, suffered pay cuts but only
      minimal job losses. And the underlying trends of the economy meant that what new jobs did
      become available in the 193os, such as telephone switchboard operation and clerical work, were
      peculiarly suited to women.…
             Source: David M. Kennedy, Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945,
                                                                                          Oxford University Press
8a According to David M. Kennedy, what was one economic effect of the Depression on women? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 8b
       …Although obviously severely limited, the improvements for blacks [African Americans] during
       the Depression were discernible [noticeable]. In May 1935, as the “Second New Deal” was
       getting under way, President [Franklin D.] Roosevelt issued Executive Order 7046, banning
       discrimination on projects of the new Works Progress Administration. Discrimination continued,
       but the WPA proved to be a godsend for many blacks. In the later thirties [193os], between 15
       and 20 percent of the people working for the agency were black, although blacks constituted less
       than 10 percent of the national population. This, of course, was a reflection of how much worse
       off blacks were than whites, but the WPA did enable many blacks to survive. More than that,
       even minimum WPA wages of $12 a week were twice what many blacks had been earning
         Harold Ickes’s Public Works Administration provided to black tenants a more than fair share
       of the public housing it built. The PWA went so far as to construct several integrated housing
       projects. PWA construction payrolls also treated blacks fairly. Some 31 percent of PWA wages in
       1936 went to black workers. Ickes first made use of a quota system requiring the hiring of blacks
       in proportion to their numbers in the local work force. This precedent was followed again (at
       least in theory) by the wartime Fair Employment Practices Commission and in the civil rights
       legislation and court decisions of the 196os and 197os.…
                          Source: Robert McElvaine, The Great Depression: America, 1929–1941, Three Rivers Press
8b According to Robert McElvaine, what was one way the New Deal affected African Americans economically? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 9
      …In an attempt to stimulate the economy, [President Franklin D.] Roosevelt announced a
      massive Federal programme of ‘spending and lending’. Under the Emergency Relief
      Appropriations Act [of 1938] $3.75 billion was allocated by Congress to public works and
      industrial expansion. Two industries, textiles and steel, took immediate advantage of this ‘pumppriming’
      (as Roosevelt called it), and saw a rise in production. The boot and shoe industry
      followed, as did the building industry. By the end of the year [1938] the construction of
      residential homes was breaking all recent records. Even the much-troubled railway companies
      were able to take advantage of the Federal injection of cash, with the result that they were able
      to abandon a 15 per cent wage cut already announced, that could only have added to hardship.…
             Source: Martin Gilbert, A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume Two: 1933–1951, HarperCollins, London
9 According to Martin Gilbert, what was one effect of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s policies on industry? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                For many Americans, the 192os was a decade of prosperity and confidence.
                However, by the end of the decade, political, social, and economic changes were
                starting that would create a far different America in the 193os.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                 • Discuss the differences and/or similarities in American society between the
                   192os and the 193os
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents June 2011 Exam

Contact Info © 1999-2018 Syvum Technologies Inc. Privacy Policy Disclaimer and Copyright