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US History and Government - New York Regents June 2014 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Which conclusion is best supported by the information on the time line?
  (1) Britain eventually granted the colonies representation in Parliament.
  (2) Only elected British officials had the right to levy taxes.
  (3) Britain’s efforts to increase control over the colonies were not successful.
  (4) Creation of the First Continental Congress was an immediate reaction to the
      passage of the Stamp Act.
Answer: 3

2 Which of these events would be placed on the time line before 1763?
  (1) Boston Massacre                    (3) Battle of Saratoga
  (2) French and Indian War              (4) passage of Northwest Ordinance
Answer: 2

3 From the 160os through the 180os, the major
  reason for the westward movement of settlers was
  (1) escape urban unrest in coastal cities
  (2) avoid high taxes in the East
  (3) find manufacturing jobs in the Midwest
  (4) acquire new areas of fertile soil for
Answer: 4

4 Colonial-era New England town meetings and
  the Virginia House of Burgesses were both
  (1) early social reform movements
  (2) attempts to build a strong national government
  (3) steps in the growth of representative democracy
  (4) efforts to regulate trade with Native American
Answer: 3

5 The years between the end of the American
  Revolution and the ratification of the
  Constitution are sometimes called the “critical
  period” because
  (1) the western territories were left ungoverned
  (2) the United States fought a war with France
  (3) Spain refused to sell Florida to the United
  (4) the central government failed to solve many
      economic problems
Answer: 4

    Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: Our national government should be
           strong. State governments should have
           only limited powers.
Speaker B: A bicameral legislature would protect
           the power of both the large states and
           the small states.
Speaker C: The expansion of the national
           government will lead to tyranny.
Speaker D: The executive branch should have
           significant power.
 6 Which speaker is expressing an idea that was
   included in the Great Compromise during the
   drafting of the Constitution in 1787?
   (1) A                      (3) C
   (2) B                      (4) D
Answer: 2

7 During the debate over ratification of the
  Constitution, people who agreed with the
  statements of Speakers A and D became known
  (1) Loyalists
  (2) Federalists
  (3) Antifederalists
  (4) Democratic Republicans
Answer: 2

8 Which protection guaranteed by the first
  amendment to the United States Constitution
  was influenced by the trial of John Peter Zenger
  (1) freedom of the press (3) right to assemble
  (2) freedom of religion (4) right to petition
Answer: 1

9 The term judicial review is best defined as the
  (1) right of a defendant to appeal the verdict of a
  (2) ability of Congress to create new federal
  (3) authority of the Senate to confirm Supreme
      Court justices
  (4) power of the Supreme Court to determine
      the constitutionality of laws
Answer: 4

10 According to the United States Constitution, the
   federal census is used to determine the
   (1) size of the United States Supreme Court
   (2) maximum number of cabinet members
   (3) apportionment of members in the House of
   (4) number of senators allotted to each state
Answer: 3

11 During George Washington’s presidency, the
   authority of the federal government was
   strengthened by the
   (1) elimination of political parties
   (2) suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion
   (3) formation of a military alliance with England
   (4) establishment of a national language
Answer: 2

12 Under the leadership of Chief Justice John
   Marshall (1801–1835), the Supreme Court
   expanded the influence of the national
   government by
   (1) forcing states to grant relief from personal
   (2) authorizing the president to use troops
       without congressional approval
   (3) ending the importation of enslaved Africans
   (4) strengthening federal powers over interstate
       commerce and banking
Answer: 4

Base your answer to question 13 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
13 The map shows the exploration routes of Lewis and Clark and of Zebulon Pike. A valid
   conclusion based on this map is that these expeditions
   (1) faced few barriers from natural features
   (2) avoided land claimed by other countries
   (3) used river systems to help them on their journeys
   (4) took the most direct routes to reach the Pacific Ocean
Answer: 3

14 Between 1800 and 1830, the National Road and
   the Erie Canal were built to connect which
   (1) Atlantic Coast and Midwest
   (2) South and New England
   (3) Pacific Coast and Gulf Coast
   (4) Great Plains and Rocky Mountains
Answer: 1

15 During the 184os, supporters of Manifest
   Destiny favored
   (1) closing the frontier to settlement
   (2) ending the American System
   (3) acquiring Texas and California
   (4) ceding the Oregon territory to Russia
Answer: 3

16 Which constitutional principle was the main
   focus of the North–South conflicts that led to the
   Civil War?
   (1) States rights
   (2) due process of law
   (3) separation of powers
   (4) presidential veto power
Answer: 1

17 Slavery throughout the United States was
   permanently abolished by the
   (1) ratification of the Constitution of the United
   (2) approval of the Republican Party platform of
   (3) issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation
   (4) adoption of the 13th amendment to the
Answer: 4

18 “Since the Southern states never legally left the
   Union, they should be restored to the Union as
   soon as possible.”
   The position expressed in this statement is most
   closely associated with the beliefs of
   (1) Robert E. Lee          (3) Jefferson Davis
   (2) Thaddeus Stevens       (4) Abraham Lincoln
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 19 on the poem
excerpt below and on your knowledge of social
   “Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
   With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
   Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
   The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
   Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
   I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
             — Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” 1883
19 Which attitude about immigration is reflected in
   this poem, which is inscribed on the Statue of
   (1) People from all nations should be welcomed.
   (2) Educated professionals should be given
   (3) Quotas should be adopted to limit certain
       ethnic groups.
   (4) The influx of unskilled people should be
Answer: 1

20 A major result of the Spanish-American War
   (1898) was that the United States
   (1) adopted a policy of isolationism
   (2) assumed a more prominent role in world
   (3) gave up control of territories outside the
       Western Hemisphere
   (4) increased foreign aid to European allies
Answer: 2

21 During the Progressive Era, support for a
   graduated income tax was based primarily on the
   (1) desire of corporations to reduce their taxes
   (2) need to raise income from the lower classes
   (3) belief that all people should be taxed the
   (4) resentment over the unequal distribution of
Answer: 4

22 President Theodore Roosevelt strengthened the
   Monroe Doctrine by establishing the policy that
   the United States would
   (1) require Latin American nations to end trade
       with Europe
   (2) reduce Asian influence in Latin America
   (3) intervene in Latin America to prevent
       European interference
   (4) develop military alliances with Pacific naval
Answer: 3

Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
23 Which statement most accurately expresses the main idea of this 1883 cartoon?
   (1) Most workers in the United States can become business owners.
   (2) Business owners have achieved wealth through their own hard work.
   (3) Social classes arise from the natural differences in the abilities of individuals.
   (4) The wealthy are benefiting from the efforts of the working class.
Answer: 4

24 The problem shown in the cartoon was addressed during the late 180os primarily by the
   (1) organization of labor unions
   (2) implementation of the Populist Party platform
   (3) elimination of child labor
   (4) increase in immigrant workers
Answer: 1

Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 Which book was responsible for prompting the investigation illustrated in this cartoon?
   (1) The Octopus by Frank Norris
   (2) The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
   (3) The Shame of the Cities by Lincoln Steffens
   (4) How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis
Answer: 2

26 In 1906, the federal government responded to the situation shown in the cartoon by
   (1) taking control of meatpacking facilities
   (2) sending federal troops to end a strike by meatpackers
   (3) banning imported meat products
   (4) authorizing government inspection of meat processing plants
Answer: 4

Base your answer to question 27 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
         We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall
      endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this
      not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war
      together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our
      part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.…
                                                                       — Zimmerman telegram, 1917
      27 The disclosure of this document contributed to
         (1) a declaration of war against Mexico
         (2) the entry of the United States into World War I
         (3) the passage of the Treaty of Versailles
         (4) a restriction on immigration from Latin America
Answer: 2

28 “Harding Rejects Wilson’s Foreign Policy—Wants
    Return to ‘Normalcy’”
   “Coolidge Declares: ‘The Chief Business of the
    American People Is Business’”
   “Hoover Calls for ‘Rugged Individualism’; Rejects
    Paternalism and Socialism”
   Which policy of Republican presidents in the
   192os is most consistent with the positions stated
   in these headlines?
   (1) The United States should assist unions and
       provide old-age insurance.
   (2) The United States should acquire and protect
       an empire.
   (3) The federal government should support the
       poor and raise farm prices.
   (4) The federal government should assist
       business and limit foreign commitments.
Answer: 4

29 During the 192os, which economic trend helped
   cause the Great Depression?
   (1) buying goods on credit
   (2) saving rather than spending
   (3) continuing shortages of consumer goods
   (4) imposing low tariffs on imported products
Answer: 1

30 What was a major result of President Herbert
   Hoover’s use of the military to drive the Bonus
   Army out of the nation’s capital?
   (1) Army veterans widely approved President
       Hoover’s decision.
   (2) President Hoover’s reelection campaign was
   (3) Habeas corpus was suspended across the
   (4) The Supreme Court declared the action
Answer: 2

31 The primary purpose of the National Labor
   Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act) was to
   (1) allow factory owners to use court injunctions
       against workers
   (2) guarantee collective bargaining rights
   (3) establish the Social Security system
   (4) ban the use of strikes by unions
Answer: 2

32 What was one economic consequence of
   President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal?
   (1) Bank deregulation encouraged investment.
   (2) Major industries were nationalized.
   (3) Balanced budgets became the model for
       economic stability.
   (4) The role of the federal government in the
       economy expanded.
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 33 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …We must be the great arsenal of democracy.
   For us this is an emergency as serious as war
   itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with
   the same resolution, the same sense of urgency,
   the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we
   would show were we at war.…
     — President Franklin D. Roosevelt, December 29, 1940
33 In urging the United States to become the
   “arsenal of democracy,” President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt meant the nation should
   (1) make its neutrality laws more restrictive
   (2) create a military draft
   (3) provide war materials to Allied nations
   (4) send troops to Europe to fight in the war
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 34 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 What was one purpose of this World War II
   (1) discouraging discrimination in employment
   (2) supporting the internment of Japanese
   (3) requiring all citizens to take a loyalty oath
   (4) promoting a more diversified economy
Answer: 1

35 During World War II, the federal government
   urged Americans to support the war effort by
   (1) manufacturing more consumer goods
   (2) increasing spending to stimulate the economy
   (3) reducing consumption of resources needed
       for the military
   (4) investing their savings in the stock market
Answer: 3

36 The United States created the Marshall Plan
   (1947) as a program to
   (1) develop an atomic bomb
   (2) increase civil defense during the Cold War
   (3) provide economic aid to war-damaged Europe
   (4) deliver weapons to Nationalist China
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 37 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
37 The cartoon suggests that during the 195os
   leaders in government and education
   (1) were challenged by the baby boom that
       followed World War II
   (2) provided greater resources for rural schools
       than for urban schools
   (3) placed excessive burdens on schools through
       federal legislation
   (4) supported separate classrooms for students
       based on gender
Answer: 1

38 In 1948, the United States responded to the
   Soviet blockade of West Berlin by
   (1) tearing down the wall between East Berlin
       and West Berlin
   (2) supporting United Nations peacekeeping
       efforts in West Germany
   (3) shutting down transportation to East Berlin
   (4) organizing an airlift of supplies to West Berlin
Answer: 4

39 What was a major effect of the creation of the
   interstate highway system on the United States?
   (1) the loss of population in the Sun Belt
   (2) a decline in federal funding for urban renewal
   (3) an increase in suburbanization
   (4) an increase in congressional representation
       from New England
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 40 on the
newspaper headlines below and on your knowledge
of social studies.
40 Which statement most accurately explains the
   relationship between the events described in
   these newspaper headlines?
   (1) The launch of Sputnik prompted the United
       States to expand its space program.
   (2) Space exploration ended competition
       between the United States and the Soviet
   (3) Congress reduced military spending to fund
       space exploration.
   (4) The United States and the Soviet Union
       began sharing space technology.
Answer: 1

41 In the 196os, a common goal of President John F.
   Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps
   was to
   (1) improve Arab-Israeli relations
   (2) fight the spread of the AIDS epidemic
   (3) end colonialism in Latin America and Asia
   (4) support developing nations while containing
Answer: 4

42 Both the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 and the
   Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) of 1972
   were attempts to
   (1) settle boundary disputes in Europe
   (2) promote the peaceful use of atomic energy
   (3) ease Cold War tensions
   (4) share military technologies with developing
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 43 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …In this present crisis, government is not the
   solution to our problem; government is the
   problem. From time to time we’ve been tempted
   to believe that society has become too complex to
   be managed by self-rule, that government by an
   elite group is superior to government for, by, and
   of the people. Well, if no one among us is capable
   of governing himself, then who among us has the
   capacity to govern someone else? All of us
   together, in and out of government, must bear the
   burden. The solutions we seek must be equitable,
   with no one group singled out to pay a higher
           — President Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address,
                                        January 20, 1981
43 The Reagan administration tried to deal with the
   situation described in this statement by
   (1) limiting the role of the federal government
   (2) reducing military defense expenditures
   (3) increasing regulations on business
   (4) expanding the power of federal employee
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 44 on the statement
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   My fellow citizens, events in Iraq have now
   reached the final days of decision. For more than
   a decade, the United States and other nations
   have pursued patient and honorable efforts to
   disarm the Iraqi regime without war. That regime
   pledged to reveal and destroy all its weapons of
   mass destruction as a condition for ending the
   Persian Gulf war in 1991.…
             — President George W. Bush, March 17, 2003
44 Which action did President George W. Bush take
   following this statement?
   (1) withdrawing from the Persian Gulf War
   (2) ordering American forces to invade Iraq
   (3) removing economic sanctions on Iraq
   (4) threatening Iraq with nuclear weapons
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 45 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
45 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Medicare and Social Security are not helping
   (2) The financial future of Medicare and Social
       Security is in jeopardy.
   (3) Social Security will run out of money before
   (4) Medicare and Social Security have been
Answer: 2

46 The migrations of African Americans from the
   South to the North during World War I and
   World War II are most directly related to
   (1) the availability of factory jobs
   (2) a widespread farming crisis
   (3) plans to pursue military careers
   (4) access to free land
Answer: 1

47 President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society
   programs built on ideas set forth in President
   Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal by
   (1) supporting the expansion of social welfare
   (2) reinstating government loyalty lists
   (3) opposing new immigration reform measures
   (4) relying on balancing the federal budget
Answer: 1

48 Which action illustrates the concept of checks
   and balances?
   (1) President Harry Truman issuing an executive
       order to desegregate the military
   (2) Congress overriding President Richard
       Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Act
   (3) the House of Representatives Ethics
       Committee reviewing members’ financial
   (4) President Jimmy Carter selecting Walter
       Mondale as his vice presidential running mate
Answer: 2

49 Which action did the federal government take in
   response to Cold War tensions after World War II
   and again in response to the September 11, 2001,
   terrorist attacks?
   (1) expanding civil rights protections
   (2) monitoring persons suspected of endangering
       national security
   (3) withdrawing from international organizations
   (4) restricting trade with allies
Answer: 2

50 Both President Franklin D. Roosevelt and
   President Barack Obama undertook banking and
   financial reforms during their administrations to
   (1) give states a greater role in the regulatory
   (2) end foreign influence in the banking systems
   (3) restore stability to the national economy
   (4) reduce government involvement in the
Answer: 3

                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Change—The Supreme Court
                 Throughout United States history, the Supreme Court has dealt with many
                 controversial issues. The Court’s decisions in these cases have had a significant
                 impact on the United States and/or on American society.
                 Select two United States Supreme Court decisions that have had a significant
                 impact on American society and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the case
                 • Explain the Court’s decision in the case
                 • Discuss the impact of the decision on the United States and/or on American
            You may use any Supreme Court decision from your study of United States history. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include Worcester v. Georgia (1832), Dred Scott v.
        Sanford (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Schenck v. United States (1919), Korematsu v.
        United States (1944), Engel v. Vitale (1962), Miranda v. Arizona (1966), New York Times
        v. United States (1971), Roe v. Wade (1973), and United States v. Nixon (1974).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                              Do not use Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
                               as one of your Supreme Court decisions.*
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              During the 196os, writers frequently reflected social conditions that influenced
              United States history. These writers increased public awareness of critical issues
              facing the nation and had an important impact on the United States and on
              American society. Three such writers were Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (“Letter
              from Birmingham Jail”), Rachel Carson (Silent Spring), and Betty Friedan
              (The Feminine Mystique).
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two writers from the 196os mentioned in the historical context and for
                • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding an issue addressed by the
                • Discuss how the writer influenced the United States and/or American society
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a
 …In any nonviolent campaign there are
 four basic steps: (1) collection of the facts
 to determine whether injustices are alive;
 (2) negotiation; (3) self-purification; and
 (4) direct action. We have gone through all
 of these steps in Birmingham. There can
 be no gainsaying [denying] of the fact that
 racial injustice engulfs this community.
 Birmingham is probably the most
 thoroughly segregated city in the United
 States. Its ugly record of police brutality is
 known in every section of this country. Its
 unjust treatment of Negroes [African
 Americans] in the courts is a notorious
 reality. There have been more unsolved
 bombings of Negro homes and churches
 in Birmingham than any city in this nation.
 These are the hard, brutal, and
 unbelievable facts. On the basis of these
 conditions Negro leaders sought to
 negotiate with the city fathers. But the
 political leaders consistently refused to
 engage in good faith negotiation.…
                  Source: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.,
       “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” April 16, 1963
Document 1b
   During civil rights protests in Birmingham, Alabama,
Public Safety Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor was in
charge of the police and fire departments. Acting on his
orders, firefighters turned their hoses on demonstrators.
1 Based on these documents, what were two examples of racial injustice addressed by Dr. Martin Luther King
  Jr.? [2]
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Document 2
    Two years after writing “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was asked by an
interviewer if the events that followed its publication justified the sentiments expressed in that letter.
       …I would say yes. Two or three important and constructive things have happened which can be
       at least partially attributed to that letter. By now, nearly a million copies of the letter have been
       widely circulated in churches of most of the major denominations. It helped to focus greater
       international attention upon what was happening in Birmingham. And I am sure that without
       Birmingham, the march on Washington wouldn’t have been called—which in my mind was one
       of the most creative steps the Negro [African American] struggle has taken. The march on
       Washington spurred and galvanized [strengthened] the consciences of millions. It gave the
       American Negro a new national and international stature. The press of the world recorded the
       story as nearly a quarter of a million Americans, white and black, assembled in grandeur as a
       testimonial to the Negro’s determination to achieve freedom in this generation.…
                                 Source: James M. Washington, ed., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and
                                                                Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr., HarperCollins
 2 According to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., what were two effects of his “Letter from Birmingham Jail”? [2]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 3
      …Today we are committed to a worldwide struggle to promote and protect the rights of all who
      wish to be free. And when Americans are sent to Viet-Nam or West Berlin, we do not ask for
      whites only. It ought to be possible, therefore, for American students of any color to attend any
      public institution they select without having to be backed up by troops.…
      Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise. The events in Birmingham and
      elsewhere have so increased the cries for equality that no city or State or legislative body can
      prudently choose to ignore them.
      The fires of frustration and discord are burning in every city, North and South, where legal
      remedies are not at hand. Redress is sought in the streets, in demonstrations, parades, and
      protests which create tensions and threaten violence and threaten lives.…
      I am, therefore, asking the Congress to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be
      served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and
      similar establishments.…
    Source: President John F. Kennedy, Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights, June 11, 1963
3 According to President John F. Kennedy, why should Congress pass civil rights legislation? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 4
  Rachel Carson, a friend of Olga Owens Huckins, was sent a copy of this letter in 1958.
      To the Editor of The [Boston] Herald:
          Mr. R. C. Codman, who wrote that he “is actively associated” with the Commonwealth of
      Mass. aerial spraying programs for alleged mosquito control, also says that state tests have
      proved that the mixture used—fuel oil with DDT [chemical insecticide]—last summer over
      Plymouth and Barnstable Counties was entirely harmless.…
          Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy, distinguished scientist, observed after New York State
      sprayed Long Island in the same way, that no fish in still waters survived. All bees in a large
      section of the state were killed. Indeed, evidence of the havoc wrought by all air spraying of
      DDT is accumulating so rapidly that Mr. Codman’s placid [calm] assurance becomes absurd.
          The mosquito control plane flew over our small town last summer. Since we live close to the
      marshes, we were treated to several lethal doses as the pilot crisscrossed our place. And we
      consider the spraying of active poison over private land to be a serious aerial intrusion.…
          The remedy of this situation [killing the mosquitoes] is not to double the strength of the
      spray and come again. It is to STOP THE SPRAYING OF POISONS FROM THE AIR
      everywhere until all the evidence, biological and scientific, immediate and long run, of the
      effects upon wild life and human beings are known.…
                                                                   Olga Owens Huckins
                                                                   Duxbury, 1958
                               Source: Adler and Adler, eds., Letters of the Century: America 1900–1999, Dial Press
4 According to this letter, what is one reason Olga Huckins is concerned about spraying DDT? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 5a
  In Silent Spring, Rachel Carson warned about what might happen if the use of dangerous pesticides such as
DDT continued.
           …There was a strange stillness. The birds, for example—where had they gone? Many people
       spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The
       few birds seen anywhere were moribund [dying]; they trembled violently and could not fly. It
       was a spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of
       robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now no sound; only
       silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.…
           The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as
       though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things. Even the streams were
       now lifeless. Anglers [fishermen] no longer visited them, for all the fish had died.
           In the gutters under the eaves and between the shingles of the roofs, a white granular
       powder [DDT] still showed a few patches; some weeks before it had fallen like snow upon the
       roofs and the lawns, the fields and streams.…
                                             Source: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, 1962 (adapted)
5 Based on these documents, what is one possible effect of DDT on the environment? [1]
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Document 6a
    According to a 1970 Gallup poll, 53 percent of the American public saw controlling air and water pollution
as a critical issue, up from only 17 percent five years earlier. This made the environment an important political
concern for many elected officials, including President Richard Nixon.
       …The great question of the seventies is, shall we surrender to our surroundings, or shall we
       make our peace with nature and begin to make reparations [compensation] for the damage we
       have done to our air, to our land, and to our water?…
       We still think of air as free. But clean air is not free, and neither is clean water. The price tag on
       pollution control is high. Through our years of past carelessness we incurred a debt to nature,
       and now that debt is being called.…
       I shall propose to this Congress a $10 billion nationwide clean waters program to put modern
       municipal waste treatment plants in every place in America where they are needed to make our
       waters clean again, and do it now. We have the industrial capacity, if we begin now, to build them
       all within 5 years. This program will get them built within 5 years.…
       The automobile is our worst polluter of the air. Adequate control requires further advances in
       engine design and fuel composition. We shall intensify our research, set increasingly strict
       standards, and strengthen enforcement procedures—and we shall do it now.…
                                   Source: President Richard M. Nixon, State of the Union Address, January 22, 1970
6a According to the 1970 State of the Union address, what is one proposal made by President Richard M.
   Nixon to address the concerns of environmentalists such as Rachel Carson? [1]
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Document 6b
       …Silent Spring planted the seeds of a new activism that has grown into one of the great popular
       forces of all time. When Rachel Carson died, in the spring of 1964, it was becoming clear that
       her voice would never be silenced. She had awakened not only our nation but the world. The
       publication of Silent Spring can properly be seen as the beginning of the modern environmental
                                         Source: Vice President Al Gore, introduction to 1994 edition of Silent Spring
6b According to Vice President Al Gore, what was one effect of the publication of Silent Spring? [1]
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Document 7
      …It also is time to stop giving lip service to the idea that there are no battles left to be fought
      for women in America, that women’s rights have already been won. It is ridiculous to tell girls to
      keep quiet when they enter a new field, or an old one, so the men will not notice they are there.
      In almost every professional field, in business and in the arts and sciences, women are still
      treated as second-class citizens. It would be a great service to tell girls who plan to work in
      society to expect this subtle, uncomfortable discrimination—tell them not to be quiet, and hope
      it will go away, but fight it. A girl should not expect special privileges because of her sex, but
      neither should she “adjust” to prejudice and discrimination.…
                                                 Source: Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, W.W. Norton, 1963
7 According to Betty Friedan, what is one form of discrimination experienced by women in the early 196os?
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Document 8
      …With its impassioned yet clear-eyed analysis of the issues that affected women’s lives in the
      decades after World War II—including enforced domesticity, limited career prospects and, as
      chronicled in later editions, the campaign for legalized abortion—“The Feminine Mystique” is
      widely regarded as one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 2oth century. Published
      by W. W. Norton & Company, the book had sold more than three million copies by the year 2000
      and has been translated into many languages.
      “The Feminine Mystique” made Ms. Friedan world famous. It also made her one of the chief
      architects of the women’s liberation movement of the late 1960’s and afterward, a sweeping social
      upheaval that harked back to [recalled] the suffrage campaigns of the turn of the century and
      would be called feminism’s second wave.…
                                                         Source: Margalit Fox, New York Times, February 5, 2006
8 According to Margalit Fox, what is one issue addressed in The Feminine Mystique that concerned American
  women after World War II? [1]
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Document 9a
      DON’T iron while the strike is hot,” advised the slogan of the Women’s Strike for Equality. No
      one knows how many shirts lay wrinkling in laundry baskets last week as thousands of women
      across the country turned out for the first big demonstration of the Women’s Liberation
      movement. The strike, on the 5oth anniversary of the proclamation of the women’s suffrage
      amendment, drew small crowds by antiwar or civil rights standards, yet was easily the largest
      women’s rights rally since the suffrage protests.…
      Betty Friedan, whose 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is credited with reviving the feminist
      movement, originally called the strike at the conference of the National Organization for Women
      in March. As head of the hastily assembled National Women’s Strike Coalition, she had
      predicted an impressive turnout and was not dismayed by the figures. “It exceeded my wildest
      dreams,” Friedan said. “It’s now a political movement; the message is clear. The politicians are
      taking heed already.”…
                                                                           Source: Time, September 7, 1970
9a Based on this document, what was one way The Feminine Mystique influenced the women’s movement of
   the 196os and early 197os? [1]
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Document 9b
       …Many factors have contributed to that record of [women’s] achievement. The reform efforts
       of suffragists in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were important, as were those of
       the feminists of the 196os. American women owe a great deal to those who fought for the
       passage of civil rights legislation in the 196os, particularly the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the
       Civil Rights Act of 1964. Demographic and economic trends also shaped women’s experiences.
           The personal choices women have made are perhaps the most important and least
       appreciated factor in women’s economic progress over the years. Decisions to enter previously
       male-dominated fields of education and employment, to marry and bear children later in life, to
       join the work force, and to leave the work force to raise children have all had an enormous effect
       on whether women can achieve total parity with men. Some of those choices, such as leaving the
       work force for a time to raise children or working part-time, have a negative effect on women’s
       earnings. Others, such as entering previously all-male fields, have led to remarkable gains for
       women in the work force.…
                 Source: Furchtgott-Roth and Stolba, Women’s Figures: An Illustrated Guide to the Economic Progress of
                                             Women in America, The AEI Press and Independent Women’s Forum, 1999
9b According to Furchtgott-Roth and Stolba, what is one factor that contributed to the economic progress of
   women? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                During the 196os, writers frequently reflected social conditions that influenced
                United States history. These writers increased public awareness of critical issues
                facing the nation and had an important impact on the United States and on
                American society. Three such writers were Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (“Letter
                from Birmingham Jail”), Rachel Carson (Silent Spring), and Betty Friedan
                (The Feminine Mystique).
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two writers from the 196os mentioned in the historical context and for
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding an issue addressed by the
                  • Discuss how the writer influenced the United States and/or American society
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion
                  that are beyond a restatement of the theme
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents June 2014 Exam

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