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History : History Vocabulary I

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  • angel : divine messenger of God
  • annexation : addition of territories or territories to existing ones
  • artisan : craftsman or manually skilled worker
  • bushido : code of conduct for samurai in Japan emphasizing obedience to one's master
  • capital : accumulated wealth; money and stock with which company starts
  • chariot : car drawn by horses used in ancient times
  • collectivism : collective ownership of land and means of production / distribution
  • corporation : body of persons or business owned by body of investors
  • creole : descendant of French or Spanish settlers in America
  • crucifixion : act of putting to death on a cross especially that of Christ
  • culture : customs and lifestyle of a group of people
  • Czar, Tsar, Tzar : emperor or king of Russian Empire
  • dictator : absolute ruler or person with supreme authority
  • federal : (of States) united, but independent in internal matters
  • fortification : defensive work to protect against enemy
  • guild : association with common interest, e.g., of merchants or artisans
  • hejira, hegira : Mohammedian era dating from A.D. 622; Mohammed's journey from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622
  • Hellenism : Greek culture
  • karma : destiny or fate in next life is decided by sum of person's actions in previous lives according to Hinduism / Buddhism
  • kibbutz : collective farm in Israel
  • Knesset : Israeli parliament
  • kremlin : Russian government; citadel in Russian town especially that in Moscow
  • literacy : ability to read and write
  • materialism : belief that material prosperity is the requirement for a good life
  • memoirs : account of one's own life or experiences
  • Messiah : deliverer expected by the Jews
  • modernization : adoption of modern means for producing quality goods and services
  • monotheism : belief in one God
  • monument : buildings and statues designed or serving to commemorate people or things
  • mummy : dead body of Egyptian Pharaoh that has been embalmed for preservation
  • Muslim : Follower of Islam and believer in prophet Muhammad's teachings
  • palanquin : covered litter for a person carried on poles, formerly used in India and the East
  • papyrus : ancient writing material made from the paper reed grown on the banks of the Nile
  • Pharaoh : Egyptian king
  • polytheism : belief in more than one God
  • republic : State where people are supreme; system of government where citizens elect leaders exercising right to vote
  • self-sufficiency : condition of supporting oneself without aid from others
  • senate : State council of ancient Rome with nobles meeting to make laws; modern legislature
  • shogun : chief general in Japan with more political power than emperor after 1162
  • state : civil community with its own government and laws
  • suffragist : advocate of extending voting rights especially to women
  • tyranny : cruel government and oppressive use of authority
  • westernization : adoption of western ideas and lifestyles by other countries

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